ACQUIRED IMMUNITY

Acquired (adaptive or specific) immunity is not present at birth. It is learned. As a person’s immune system encounters foreign substances (antigens), the components of acquired immunity learn the best way to attack each antigen and begin to develop a memory for that antigen. Acquired immunity is also called specific immunity because it tailors its attack to a specific antigen previously encountered. Its hallmarks are its ability to learn, adapt, and remember.

Acquired immunity takes time to develop after first exposure to a new antigen. However afterward, the antigen is remembered, and subsequent responses to that antigen are quicker and more effective than those that occurred after the first exposure.

The white blood cells responsible for acquired immunity are

  • Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)

Typically, an acquired immune response begins when antibodies, produced by B cells (B lymphocytes), encounter an antigen.

Other participants in acquired immunity are

  • Dendritic cells (see Acquired Immunity : Dendritic Cells)
  • Cytokines (see Innate Immunity : Cytokines)
  • The complement system (which enhances the effectiveness of antibodies—see Innate Immunity : Complement System)

Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes enable the body to remember antigens and to distinguish self from harmful nonself (including viruses and bacteria). Lymphocytes circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system and move into tissues as needed.

The immune system can remember every antigen encountered because after an encounter, some lymphocytes develop into memory cells. These cells live a long time—for years or even decades. When these cells encounter an antigen for the second time, they recognize it immediately and respond quickly, vigorously, and specifically to that particular antigen. This specific immune response is the reason that people do not contract chickenpox or measles more than once and that vaccination can prevent certain disorders.

Lymphocytes may be T cells or B cells.

T cells

immune-system4T cells are produced in the thymus. They can potentially recognize an almost limitless number of different antigens. To avoid attacking the body’s own tissues, they need to learn how to distinguish self from nonself antigens. Normally, only the T cells that ignore the body’s own antigens (self-antigens) are allowed to mature and leave the thymus.

Lymphocyte T Cell

Mature T cells are stored in secondary lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, appendix, and Peyer patches in the small intestine). These cells circulate in the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. After they first encounter an infected or abnormal cell, they are activated and search for those particular cells.

There are different types of T cells:

  • Killer (cytotoxic) T cells attach to antigens on infected or abnormal (for example, cancerous) cells. Killer T cells then kill these cells by making holes in their cell membrane and injecting enzymes into the cells.
  • Helper T cells help other immune cells. Some helper T cells help B cells produce antibodies against foreign antigens. Others help activate killer T cells to kill infected or abnormal cells or help activate macrophages, enabling them to ingest infected or abnormal cells more efficiently.
  • Suppressor (regulatory) T cells produce substances that help end the immune response or sometimes prevent certain harmful responses from occurring.

When T cells initially encounter an antigen, most of them perform their designated function, but some of them develop into memory cells, which remember the antigen and respond to it more vigorously when they encounter it again.

Sometimes T cells—for reasons that are not completely understood—do not distinguish self from nonself. This malfunction can result in an autoimmune disorder, in which the body attacks its own tissues (see Autoimmune Disorders).

B cells

immune-system5B cells are formed in the bone marrow. B cells have particular sites (receptors) on their surface where antigens can attach. B cells can learn to recognize an almost limitless number of different antigens.

Lymphocyte B Cell

The B-cell response to antigens has two stages:

  • Primary immune response: When B cells first encounter an antigen, the antigen attaches to a receptor, stimulating the B cells. Some B cells change into memory cells, which remember that specific antigen, and others change into plasma cells. Helper T cells help B cells in this process. Plasma cells produce antibodies that are specific to the antigen that stimulated their production. After the first encounter with an antigen, production of enough of the specific antibody takes several days. Thus, the primary immune response is slow.
  • Secondary immune response: But thereafter, whenever B cells encounter the antigen again, memory B cells very rapidly recognize the antigen, multiply, change into plasma cells, and produce antibodies. This response is quick and very effective.

Although the main function of B cells is to produce antibodies, they can also present antigen to T cells.

Dendritic Cells

Dendritic cells reside in the skin, lymph nodes, and tissues throughout the body. Most dendritic cells ingest and break antigens into fragments (called antigen processing), enabling helper T cells to recognize the antigen. Dendritic cells present antigen fragments to T cells in the lymph nodes.

Another type of dendritic cell, the follicular dendritic cell, presents unprocessed (intact) antigen that has been linked with antibody (antibody-antigen complex) to B cells.

After T and B cells are presented with the antigen, they become activated.

Antibodies

When a B cell encounters an antigen, it is stimulated to mature into a plasma cell or a memory B cell. Plasma cells then release antibodies (also called immunoglobulins, or Ig).

Antibodies protect the body in the following ways:

  • Helping cells ingest antigens (cells that ingest antigens are called phagocytes)
  • Inactivating toxic substances produced by bacteria
  • Attacking bacteria and viruses directly
  • Activating the complement system, which has many immune functions
  • Helping certain cells, such as natural killer cells, kill infected cells or cancer cells

Antibodies are essential for fighting off certain types of bacterial and fungal infections. They can also help fight viruses.

Antibodies attach to the antigen and form an immune complex (antibody-antigen complex). The antibody and antigen fit tightly together, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Sometimes an antibody can attach to other antigens if the antigens closely resemble the antigen that the antibody was formed to recognize and attach to.

Basic Y Structure of Antibodies

An antibody molecule is basically shaped like a Y. The molecule has two parts:
· Variable part: This part varies from antibody to antibody, depending on which antigen the antibody targets. The antigen attaches to the variable part.
· Constant part: This part can be one of five structures, which determines the antibody’s class— IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. This part is the same within each class.

immune-system3

Each antibody molecule has two parts:

  • Variable part: This part varies. It is specialized to attach to a specific antigen.
  • Constant part: This part is one of five structures, which determines the antibody’s class—IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. This part is the same within each class and determines the function of the antibody.

An antibody can switch its constant part and become a different class, but its variable part does not change. Thus, it can always recognize the specific antigen that it was formed to attach to.

IgM

This class of antibody is produced when a particular antigen (such as an antigen of an infectious microorganism) is encountered for the first time. The response triggered by the first encounter with an antigen is the primary immune response. IgM then attaches to the antigen, activating the complement system, and thus makes the microorganism easier to ingest.

Normally, IgM is present in the bloodstream but not in the tissues.

IgG

IgG, the most prevalent class of antibody, is produced when a particular antigen is encountered again. More antibody is produced in this response (called the secondary immune response) than in the primary immune response. The secondary immune response is also faster and the antibodies produced—mainly IgG—are more effective.

IgG protects against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and toxic substances.IgG is present in the bloodstream and tissues. It is the only class of antibody that crosses the placenta from mother to fetus. The mother’s IgG protects the fetus and infant until the infant’s immune system can produce its own antibodies.Also, IgG is the most common class of antibody used in treatment.

STRATEGIES FOR ATTACK

Different types of invading microorganisms are attacked and destroyed in different ways.
Some microorganisms are directly recognized, ingested, and destroyed by cells that ingest these invaders (phagocytes), such as neutrophils and macrophages.
However, phagocytes cannot directly recognize certain bacteria because the bacteria are enclosed in a capsule. In these cases, B cells have to help phagocytes with recognition. B cells produce antibodies against the antigens in the bacteria’s capsule. The antibodies attach to the capsule. The phagocyte can then recognize the bacteria.
Some microorganisms cannot be completely eliminated. To defend against these microorganisms, the immune system builds a wall around them. The wall is formed when phagocytes, particularly macrophages, adhere to each other. The wall around the microorganisms is called a granuloma. Some bacteria thus imprisoned may survive in the body indefinitely. If the immune system is weakened (even 50 or 60 years later), the walls of the granuloma may crumble, and the bacteria may start to multiply, causing symptoms.

IgA

These antibodies help defend against the invasion of microorganisms through body surfaces lined with a mucous membrane, including those of the nose, eyes, lungs, and digestive tract.

IgA is present in the bloodstream, in secretions produced by mucous membranes (such as tears and saliva), and in colostrum (the fluid produced by the breasts during the first few days after delivery, before breast milk is produced).

IgE

These antibodies trigger immediate allergic reactions (see Overview of Allergic Reactions). IgE binds to basophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bloodstream and to mast cells in tissues. When basophils or mast cells with IgE bound to them encounter allergens (antigens that cause allergic reactions), they release substances (such as histamine) that cause inflammation and damage surrounding tissues. Thus, IgE is the only class of antibody that often seems to do more harm than good. However, IgE helps defend against certain parasitic infections that are common in some developing countries.

Small amounts of IgE are present in the bloodstream and mucus of the digestive system. These amounts are higher in people with asthma, hay fever, other allergic disorders, or parasitic infections.

IgD

IgD is present mainly on the surface of immature B cells. It helps these cells mature. Small amounts of these antibodies are present in the bloodstream. Their function in the bloodstream, if any, is not well understood.

 

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OVERVIEW

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This website is operated by private parties in the Republic of Panama. Throughout the site, the terms “we”, “us” and “our” refer to drfarrahcancercenter.com, which offers this website, including all information, tools and services available from this site to you, the user, conditioned upon your acceptance of all terms, conditions, policies and notices stated here.

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Your access to and use of the drfarrahcancercenter.com site is conditioned on your acceptance of and compliance with these Terms. These terms apply to all visitors, users and others who access or use the drfarrahcancercenter.com site. By accessing or using the drfarrahcancercenter.com site, you agree to be bound by these Terms. If you disagree with any part of the following Terms of Use, then you may not access the drfarrahcancercenter.com site.

By visiting our site and/ or purchasing anything from us, you engage in our “Service” and agree to be bound by the following terms and conditions (“Terms of Use”, “Terms”), including those additional terms and conditions and policies referenced herein and/or available by hyperlink. These Terms of Use apply to all users of the site, including without limitation users who are browsers, vendors, customers, merchants, and/ or contributors of content.

Any new features or tools which are added to the current website shall also be subject to the Terms of Use. You can review the most current version of the Terms of Use at any time on this page. We reserve the right to update, change or replace any part of these Terms of Use by posting updates and/or changes to our website. It is your responsibility to check this page periodically for changes. Your continued use of or access to the website following the posting of any changes constitutes acceptance of those changes.

 

SECTION 1 – ONLINE WEBSITE TERMS

By agreeing to these Terms of Use, you represent that you are at least the age of majority in your state, province, country or city of residence, or that you are the age of majority in your state, province, country or city of residence and you have given us your consent to allow any of your minor dependents to use this site.

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SECTION 2 – GENERAL CONDITIONS

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SECTION 4 – MODIFICATIONS TO THE SERVICE

We reserve the right at any time to modify or discontinue the Service (or any part or content thereof) without notice at any time.

We shall not be liable to you or to any third-party for any modification, change, suspension or discontinuance of the Service.

 

SECTION 5 – OPTIONAL TOOLS

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We may also, in the future, offer new services and/or features through the website (including, the release of new tools and resources). Such new features and/or services shall also be subject to these Terms of Use.

 

SECTION 6 – THIRD-PARTY LINKS

Certain content, products and services available via our Service may include materials from third-parties.

Third-party links on this site may direct you to third-party websites that are not affiliated with us. We are not responsible for examining or evaluating the content or accuracy and we do not warrant and will not have any liability or responsibility for any third-party materials or websites, or for any other materials, products, or services of third-parties.

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If, at our request, you send certain specific submissions (for example contest entries) or without a request from us you send creative ideas, suggestions, proposals, plans, or other materials, whether online, by email, by postal mail, or otherwise (collectively, ‘comments’), you agree that we may, at any time, without restriction, edit, copy, publish, distribute, translate and otherwise use in any medium any comments that you forward to us. We are and shall be under no obligation (1) to maintain any comments in confidence; (2) to pay compensation for any comments; or (3) to respond to any comments.

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SECTION 8 – ERRORS, INACCURACIES AND OMISSIONS

Occasionally there may be information on our site or in the Service that contains typographical errors, inaccuracies or omissions that may relate to product descriptions, pricing, promotions, offers, product shipping charges, transit times and availability. We reserve the right to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions, and to change or update information or cancel orders if any information in the Service or on any related website is inaccurate at any time without prior notice (including after you have submitted your order).

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SECTION 9 – PROHIBITED USES

In addition to other prohibitions as set forth in the Terms of Use, you are prohibited from using the site or its content: (a) for any unlawful purpose; (b) to solicit others to perform or participate in any unlawful acts; (c) to violate any international, federal, provincial or state regulations, rules, laws, or local ordinances; (d) to infringe upon or violate our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others; (e) to harass, abuse, insult, harm, defame, slander, disparage, intimidate, or discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, race, age, national origin, or disability; (f) to submit false or misleading information; (g) to upload or transmit viruses or any other type of malicious code that will or may be used in any way that will affect the functionality or operation of the Service or of any related website, other websites, or the Internet; (h) to collect or track the personal information of others; (i) to spam, phish, pharm, pretext, spider, crawl, or scrape; (j) for any obscene or immoral purpose; or (k) to interfere with or circumvent the security features of the Service or any related website, other websites, or the Internet. We reserve the right to terminate your use of the Service or any related website for violating any of the prohibited uses.

 

SECTION 10 – DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES; LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

We do not guarantee, represent or warrant that your use of our service will be uninterrupted, timely, secure or error-free.

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You understand and agree with the following statement made on behalf of drfarrahcancercenter.com, “We, on behalf of our directors, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, licensors, contributors and service providers, exclude and disclaim liability for any losses and expenses of whatever nature and howsoever arising including, without limitation, any direct, indirect, general, special, punitive, incidental or consequential damages; loss of use: loss of data; loss caused by a virus: loss of income or profit: loss of or damage to property: loss of life: claims of third parties: or other losses of any kind or character, or the inability to use, the site or the content even if we have been advised of the possibility of such damages or losses, arising out of or in connection with the use of this site or any web site with which it is linked.”

 

SECTION 11 – INDEMNIFICATION

You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless drfarrahcancercenter.com and our parent, subsidiaries, affiliates, partners, officers, directors, agents, contractors, licensors, service providers, subcontractors, suppliers, interns and employees, harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, made by any third-party due to or arising out of your breach of these Terms of Use or the documents they incorporate by reference, or your violation of any law or the rights of a third-party.

 

SECTION 12 – SEVERABILITY

In the event that any provision of these Terms of Use is determined to be unlawful, void or unenforceable, such provision shall nonetheless be enforceable to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, and the unenforceable portion shall be deemed to be severed from these Terms of Use, such determination shall not affect the validity and enforceability of any other remaining provisions.

 

SECTION 13 – TERMINATION

The obligations and liabilities of the parties incurred prior to the termination date shall survive the termination of this agreement for all purposes.

These Terms of Use are effective unless and until terminated by us. You may terminate use of the drfarrahcancercenter.com site, but this Terms of Use shall survive in perpetuity.

If in our sole judgment you fail, or we suspect that you have failed, to comply with any term or provision of these Terms of Use, we also may terminate this agreement at any time without notice and you will remain liable for all amounts due up to and including the date of termination; and/or accordingly may deny you access to our Services (or any part thereof).

 

SECTION 14 – ENTIRE AGREEMENT

The failure of us to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these Terms of Use shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision.

These Terms of Use and any policies or operating rules posted by us on this site or in respect to The Service constitutes the entire agreement and understanding between you and us and govern your use of the Service, superseding any prior or contemporaneous agreements, communications and proposals, whether oral or written, between you and us (including, but not limited to, any prior versions of the Terms of Use).

Any ambiguities in the interpretation of these Terms of Use shall not be construed against the drafting party.

 

SECTION 15 – GOVERNING LAW

These Terms of Use and any separate agreements whereby we provide you Services shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Panama.

 

SECTION 16 – CHANGES TO TERMS OF USE

You can review the most current version of the Terms of Use at any time at this page.

We reserve the right, at our sole discretion, to update, change or replace any part of these Terms of Use by posting updates and changes to our website. It is your responsibility to check our website periodically for changes. Your continued use of or access to our website or the Service following the posting of any changes to these Terms of Use constitutes acceptance of those changes.

 

SECTION 17 – CONTACT INFORMATION

Questions about the Terms of Use should be sent to us at staff@drfarrahcancercenter.com

Upon agreeing to these terms and conditions, you gain access to the drfarrahcancercenter.com website and assume total responsibility for any and all actions undertaken by you as a result of your access to the drfarrahcancercenter.com website. You agree and understand that the terms of this agreement shall be binding upon you, your respective heirs, successors, assigns and legal representatives. You understand and agree that all provisions of this Terms of Use agreement that by their nature should survive termination shall survive termination, including, without limitation, ownership provisions, warranty disclaimers, indemnity, licensing in perpetuity and limitations of liability.