(AMA) AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

When it comes to health, why not just believe the American Medical Association? They have had Doctors like me deported, arrested, publicly humiliated, driven out of business, and discredited simply because we believe there is a better way to handle the issues of Cancer. Imagine the courage and conviction it takes to disagree with a large organization like that. Sure, they have had product endorsement debacles like the embarrassing Sunbeam Corporation deal where they were paid to endorse untested products. But surely their history of corrupt and grievous practices aren’t that pervasive are they? Unfortunately, yes. Realize that Cancer is a VERY big business, and that business needs a constant influx of money to continue operating.

Most any Doctor will tell you that if you have a cure for cancer, that “the world will beat a path to your door.” If that were true, what would happen to the Pharmaceutical industry that rakes in hundreds of BILLIONS of dollars per year? It is a monster that needs to be fed, which is why Physicians like me are minimalized by the AMA and Big Pharma.

Those who critique and attempt to discredit what we do always like to throw around phrases like “Science Based” medicine. They will say that our methods haven’t been proven. (They have, it’s just that the “Medical Establishment” and “Big Pharma” won’t give them proper credit, or admit that they’ve been wrong.)

If “science based” medicine is the yardstick we’ll be measured with, let’s take a look at something as simple as common medical knowledge. As an example of typical, accepted medical doctrine, most Doctors and scholars will say that up until the 1950’s to 1960’s, we just didn’t know that tobacco and smoking was bad for you. After all, it wasn’t until January 11, 1964, that Dr. Luther L. Terry, M.D., the Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service linked smoking to lung cancer right?

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A few years earlier in the October 30, 1948, Journal of the American Medical Association, it’s Editor in Chief, Dr. Morris Fishbein stated; …“more can be said in behalf of smoking as a form of escape from tension than against it .”
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This must mean that in the 15 years, 2 months, and 12 days between those two dates, there must have been some seriously groundbreaking “Science Based” medicine that uncovered this link.

This fueled my curiosity about how much the “Medical Establishment” and the public knew about the effects of tobacco and when they knew it. The results of our investigation will probably shock you as much as it did us.

So, let’s see if we can find anything about tobacco and it’s harmful effects prior to October 30, 1948.

1602- Philaretes, In his dissertation “Work for Chimney Sweepers,” Philaretes theorizes about the harmful effects of daily use of tobacco.
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1604- King James I, A Counterblaste to Tobacco written in 1604: “Have you not reason then to bee ashamed, and to forbeare this filthie noveltie, so basely grounded, so foolishly received and so grossely mistaken in the right use thereof? In your abuse thereof sinning against God, harming your selves both in persons and goods, and raking also thereby the markes and notes of vanitie upon you: by the custome thereof making your selves to be wondered at by all forraine civil Nations, and by all strangers that come among you, to be scorned and contemned. A custome lothsome to the eye, hatefull to the Nose, harmefull to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomelesse.”
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1667- Dr Johann Arnold Friderici, Tabacologia sive de tabaco dissertatio. Medical text- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1670- Dr. Theodori Kerckringii the Dutch anatomist wrote in the Spicilegium anatomicum about the bodies of expired smokers: “The tongue of the cadaver is black and gives off an odour of poison; the trachea is coated with soot, like a cooking pot; the lungs are dried-out and almost friable.” He concluded that “the corpse gives the overall impression that someone had lit a fire among the organs”. Medical Report- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1697- The Duke of Saint-Simon accidentally kills the poet Santeuil by tobacco poisoning.
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1699- On March 26, Dr. Guy-Crescent Fagon, first physician to the King Louis XIV of France, declares that use of tobacco shortens life.
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1761- Dr. John Hill, M.D., Cautions Against the Immoderate Use of Snuff. Dr. Hill made the first clinical report documenting tobacco as a cause of cancer to the nose.
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1775- Sir Percivall Pott, M.D., is the first scientist to demonstrate cancer caused by an environmental carcinogen. Dr. Pott implicated chimney soot as a direct contact carcinogen to skin in a condition known as Chimney sweeps’ cancer, which is a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum. Latter animal studies of painting coal tar onto skin would demonstrate the role of the chemical carcinogen benzopyrene, which occurs in high concentrations in tobacco smoke and chimney soot.
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1795- Dr. Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, M.D., De morbis vasorum absorbentium corporis humani. Published by, Trajecti ad Moenum, 1795. Dr. Sömmerring makes the first “official” etiology between pipe smoking and lip cancer on page 109 where he states, “Carcinoma of the lip is most frequent when people indulge in tobacco pipes.” Medical Report- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1798- Dr. Benjamin Rush, M.D., Observations upon the influence of the Habitual use of Tobacco upon Health, Morals, and Property. Page 274 “I shall conclude these observations by relating an Anecdote of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin. A few months before his death, he declared to one of his friends that he had never used Tobacco in any way in the course of his long life, and that he was disposed to believe there was not much advantage to be derived from it, for that he had never met with a man who used it, who advised to follow his example.”
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1830- “Tobacco is, in fact, an absolute poison.”—Journal of Health, Vol 1 Philadelphia. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1833- Rev. Orin Fowler, Evils of Using Tobacco – Necessity of Immediate – Entire Reformation
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1836- Samuel Green, New England Almanack and Farmer’s Friend, “thousands and tens of thousands die of diseases of the lungs generally brought on by tobacco smoking. . . . How is it possible to be otherwise? Tobacco is a poison. A man will die of an infusion of tobacco as of a shot through the head.”
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1836- William A. Alcott, M.D., Tobacco . . . Effects on The Human System
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1842- Charles Dickens writes of the disgusting tobacco use in America.
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1845- Rev. Benjamin Lane, The Mysteries of Tobacco
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1848- Dr. John Burdell, Tobacco: Its Use and Abuse
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1849- Dr. Joel Shew, Tobacco: History, Nature, Effects on Body and Mind
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1850- The murder of Gustave Fougnies in Belgium is a worldwide sensation, because it’s the true story of the first documented nicotine murder.
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1851- Extraordinary Trial for murder in Belgium with tobacco as the weapon
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1852- George Trask, Thoughts and stories on tobacco for American lads. “The popular weed Tobacco, on which it treats, is a vegetable poison…”
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1858- The “universal malice” of tobacco includes a full range of effects, from short-term to long-term, over which “The law . . . extends its protection” to the victims, words from People v. Carmichael, 5 Mich. 10 [71 Am Dec 769 (1858)].
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1858- Dr. Etienne-Frédéric Bouisson, M.D., Tribut à la chirurgie, vol. 1 (Paris: Baillière, 1858), pp. 259-306. Dr. Bouisson found that 63 of his 68 patients suffering from oral cancer were pipe smokers. Medical Report- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1859- Professor John Lizars, M.D., Professor of Surgery to the Royal College of Surgeons, and Senior Operating Surgeon at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland. The Use and Abuse of Tobacco, (Edinburgh: 1856, 1857, 1859, reprinted, Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co, 1883)
Page 53 ” Great smokers, also, especially those who employ short pipes and cigars, are said to be liable to cancerous affections of the lips.”
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1860- Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, M.D. The Medical Times and Gazette, A clinical Report on Epithelial Cancer. October 6, 1860, pages 334 and 335. Of 127 cases of Cancer of the lip, 124 were smokers. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1864- The Confederate States Medical & Surgical Journal, Tobacco effects include “disturbances . . . on the bronchial surface of the lung” and the fact that “no smoker can ever be said …to be well.”—”Effects of Tobacco,” (November 1864) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1865- Harpers Weekly the ill effects of smoking
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1866- Dr. James Jackson, M.D., Tobacco – Effect upon Health and Character of those who use it, page 4 “Tobacco may justly be classed as one of the most powerful poisons known to man. Experiments have been made in various ways to decide this point, and with the physician there is no longer any doubt in regard to it.”
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1867- Harpers Weekly Human Lungs harmed by smoking tobacco
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1867- Harpers Weekly Tobacco causes cancer and death
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1868- James Parton, Smoking and Drinking, (Boston: Ticknor and Fields 1868). Page 17 “No smoker who has ever trained severely for a race, or a game, or a fight, needs to be told that smoking reduces the tone of the system and diminishes all the forces of the body. He knows it.” 
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1869- Article Smoking cancer link
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1872- Article Smoking cancer link
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1874- Dr. Bernhard von Langenbeck states, “chewing tobacco can cause cancer of the mouth”.
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1874- Dr. Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch, German Surgeon General attributes chewing tobacco to oral cancers.
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1875- Harpers Weekly Tobacco smoke contains Carbon Monoxide
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1876- Dr. Benjamin W. Richardson, M.D. M.A., F.R.S., Diseases of Modern Life, (New York: D. Appleton & Co, 1876. Page 301, “Here therefore we may assume, without hesitation, that smoking excites the cancerous disorder…” Medical Textbook- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1877- Smoking Cancer causation
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1878- Dr. Charles R. Drysdale, M.D., Senior physician to the Metropolitan Free Hospital in London, The Times of London, September 25, 1878, Letter to the Editor, Tobacco and the Diseases It Produces, Page 4, “The irritation of tobacco on the tongue, and of pipes on the lips, causes a form of cancer.”
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1879- Rev. Edward P. Thwing, Facts about Tobacco, Page 34 Professor Étienne Bouisson, M.D., says that “smoking is the most common cause of cancer in the mouth.”
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1879- Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the U.S. Navy. Washington, DC.
Page 833- “Whatever arguments may be adduced in favor of the rational and temperate use of tobacco by adults, no doubt exists among medical men as to its injurious effects…”
Dr. Albert L. Gihon, M.D., Dr. Albert C. Gorgas, M.D., and Dr. Geroge A. Bright, M.D.
Page 896- “the regulations against the use of tobacco in any form cannot be too stringent…” Rear Admiral John L. Worden, U.S.N. Medical Report- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1881- Dr. George F. Witter, M.D., Tobacco and its effects: Report to Wisconsin Board of Health, Page 106 “I feel certain that abuse of tobacco, however employed, may be classed among the causes of chronic disease…” Medical Text- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1881- Dr. Hippolyte Adéon Depierris, M.D., Effects of tobacco on the soul, Page 1 “Tobacco never cures any disease; but, on the contrary, that it engenders an infinite number which can be attributed to it alone…”
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1882- Dr. John I. D. Hinds, Ph.D., The Use of Tobacco (Nashville, Tenn: Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House, 1882) Page 100, “No man who smokes daily can be said to be at any time in perfect health.”
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1882- Meta Lander, The Tobacco Problem [pen name; Margaret Woods Lawrence](Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1882, 6th ed, 1885) Page 114, “Lip and tongue cancers are not infrequent results of continuous smoking.”
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1882- Abiel Abbot Livermore, Anti-Tobacco: Speech to Meadville Temperance Union,
Page 12 “Indeed, tobacco is one of the most virulent of all vegetable poisons.”
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1882- Rev. Russell L. Carpenter, LL.D., A Lecture on Tobacco. Page 40 “…tobacco is unquestionably a poison.”
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1885- Cancer and Smoking
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1886- Cancer and tobacco as a cause
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1889- Rev. John B. Wight, Tobacco: Its Use and Abuse, Page 73 “Statistics show that in exact proportion with the increased consumption of tobacco is the increase of ….certain cancerous affections.”
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1890- Count Leo Tolstóy, Why Do Men Stupefy Themselves? “If tobacco merely cleared the thoughts and cheered one up, there would not be such a passionate craving for it, a craving showing itself just on certain definite occasions. People would not say, as they do, that they would rather go without bread than without tobacco, and would not often actually prefer tobacco to food.”
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1890- An editorial in British Medical Journal states that, “surgeons of experience find that cancer of the tongue is far more frequent in persons who have been in the habit of smoking.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1890- The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America the official government listing of drugs lists tobacco as a drug on page 402. This publication relates various aspects of drugs and disseminates this information to practitioners, pharmacists, and others who make decisions about health care. Government Medical Guide- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1891- Dr. Walter Whitehead reports in the British Medical Journal that of 104 cases of cancer of the tongue, 61 were smokers. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1893- How does smoking cause cancer of the mouth?
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1894- Obituary of Captain Wood whom surgeon said died on cancer from smoking
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1896- Sir John Millais yields to cancer from tobacco use
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1897- Joseph Cortyl, La Presse Medicale, April 21, 1897, Du Cancer des fumeurs. Cancer of the lips, tongue, jaw, mouth, pharynx, and nasal cavities were so well known to cancer specialists by the end of the century that medical students wrote doctoral theses on the topic–which by then were known to physicians as “Smokers’ Cancers.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1898- John Lyner died from cancer as a result of tobacco
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1900- Dr. Henry T. Butlin, M.D., & Dr. Walter G. Spencer, M.D., Diseases of the Mouth, “We believe that smoking is a decided cause of the occurence of cancer.” page 315 Medical Textbook- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1900- Dr. Anton Brosch, M.D., Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicine,Theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Pathogenesis und Histogenesis der malignen Geschwülste [Theoretical and experimental studies on the pathogenesis and histogenesis of malignant tumors] October 1900, Volume 162, Issue 1, pp 32-84. Dr. Brosch rubbed “tobacco juices” on guinea pigs and observed cancerous tissues growing upon them. Medical Textbook- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1901- Waldeck Rousseau Cancer caused by smoking
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1902- Billy West, the famous Minstrel, dies in Chicago from tobacco use
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1903- E.J. Baldwin Treated for Cancer
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1904- Famous Theater actor has cancer caused by smoking
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1905- The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America an official government listing of drugs removes all references to tobacco, despite the fact that tobacco is a dangerous narcotic drug. The removal of tobacco from the Pharmacopoeia was the price that had to be paid to get the support of tobacco state legislators for the Food and Drug Act of 1906. Government Medical Guide
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1906- The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. The first major political coup for the tobacco industry was the exclusion of tobacco from the legislation that lead to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) even though tobacco is a narcotic drug. As a result of lobbying by industry representatives, an entire class of injurious and deadly products were exempted from an act designed to protect Americans from harmful substances. SEC. 6. “That the term “drug,” as used in this Act, shall include all medicines and preparations recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary for internal or external use…” Even today, the FDA, which leads the world on food and drug safety issues, does not in any way regulate tobacco products.
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1906- Dr. H. Sterling Pomeroy, M.D., The boy and the cigarette. Page 9, …”use of tobacco damages seriously, sometimes ruinously”…
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1909- Dr. Charles E. Slocum, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., Tobacco: Its Deleterious Effects
Page 40 “Tobacco causes sore throat, cancer of the mouth, throat and lips.”
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1910- People Smoking high risk on having cancer
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1911- Professor F. M. Caird, M.D., reported in The Edinburgh Medical Journal that among 54 male cases of epithelioma of the tongue, all 54 were smokers. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1911- Honus Wagner, the legendary Pittsburgh Pirates shortstop, revoked in 1911 his contract with American Tobacco out of fear that circulation of his baseball card “would influence children to purchase tobacco products.” As a result, only a few dozen of his cards were ever distributed. Wagner’s honorable stance was, in a sense, rewarded posthumously. His baseball cards are among the most sought-after prizes for collectors. In 2007, one sold for $2.8 million.

1911- Prof. L. H. Pammel, Ph.D., A Manual of Poisonous Plants, cleary states Tobacco is a deadly poison.
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1911- Prof. Isaac Adler, A.M., M.D., Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi,
New York: Longmans, Green, and Co. vii-xii 3-311, 1912. Dr. Adler observed a significant increase in lung cancers among smokers. Medical Textbook- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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The Lancet, January 28, 1911: “Tobacco smoke is a poison apart altogether from the question of its containing nicotin. Amongst other things contained in tobacco smoke is CARBON MONOXIDE”– the poison which causes death from gas asphyxiation.

1912- Dr. Herbert H. Tidswell, M.D., Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England; Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, London; Late House-Surgeon to St. George’s Hospital And Northampton Infirmary. The tobacco habit, its history and pathology; a study in birth-rates. Smokers compared with non-smokers. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912.
Page 76 “There is no doubt in my mind that smokers are more liable to cancer than others…”
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1912- Dr. Edwin Wells Dwight, M.D., Chairman of the Medical Directors’ Association, Proceedings of the Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors (New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1912) pages 473-476. The earliest known actuarial report of smokers dying, on average, earlier than nonsmokers appears in the presented data from 60 years regarding 180,000 New England Mutual policyholders showing that “tobacco abstainers” had a 43 % lower mortality than expected from American Experience Tables. Medical Study- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1914- Henry Ford, The Case Against the Little White Slaver Volume I
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Page 54 “Most men who use tobacco regret that they ever formed the habit.”
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1914- Thomas Edison creates a huge sensation in his anti cigarette letter to Henry Ford.
“I employ no person who smokes cigarettes.”
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1915- Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman, LL.D., American Society for the Control of Cancer; Member American Association for Cancer Research; Associate Fellow American Medical Association; Associate Member American Academy of Medicine. The Mortality From Cancer Throughout the World (Newark: Prudential Press, 1915), p. 185. The relation of smoking to cancer of the mouth was by this time “so well established as not to admit of even a question of doubt.”
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1915- Dr. Robert Abbe, M.D., New York Medical Journal, Mouth Cancer, The case against tobacco, vol. 52, p.1-2. Dr. Abbe concluded that the most prolific cause of cancer of the mouth is constant irritation, notably from tobacco. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1915- Prof. Bruce Fink, M.A., Professor of Botany in Miami University, Tobacco, Abingdon Press, 124 pages. Page 109 “Tobacco is commonly charged by the medical profession with producing…Cancer and many other diseases.”
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1915- Dr. Irving Fisher, Ph.D., and Dr. Eugene Lyman Fisk, M.D., How to Live, Funk & Wagnalls Company, New York and London. U.S. President Taft, The Chairman of The Life Extension Institute authorized this hard hitting volume which demonstrates the mortality of tobacco users, relates the increase in pulmonary illness to the increase in smoking, as well as the deterious affects of tobacco on college students.
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1915- Henry Ford, The Case Against the Little White Slaver Volume 2
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1916- Dr. Albert H. Burr, Ph.B., M.D., Illinois Medical Journal, Longevity in its relation to sex or why fewer men than women attain old age.* Vol. XXIX, No. 1, January 1916. “the nicotine habit answers every specification of a cardio-vascular toxin and is, therefore, one of the very significant reasons why fewer men than women attain old age. (page 56) *Read before the Chicago Medical Society on Oct. 13, 1915. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1916- General Frederick Dent Grant died of throat cancer due to smoking, just like his father President Ulysses S. Grant.
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1916- Dr. Robert Abbe, M.D., Life & Health, The tobacco habit, Vol. XXXI, No. 8, August 1916, pages 381-382. “During the last six weeks I have been consulted by ten patients with grave cancer of the throat or tongue, every one of them heavy smokers…”
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1916- Max Macleby writes Tobacco Habit easily conquered, the quote “tobacco causes cancer”, is no longer a surprise to anyone.
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1916- Henry Ford, The Case Against the Little White Slaver Volumes 3 and 4
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1917- Dr. Louis Krauss, M.D., writes Tobacco mysteries exposed and habit conquered. Quotes include, “The occurence of cancer of the tongue and epithelioma of the lips is smokers is an established fact.” Dr. Jacob Gutman, M.D.
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1917- Dr. Robert Abbe, M.D., Life and Health, The legacy of the intemperate use of tobacco, Vol. XXXII, No. 2, February 1917, pages 52-53. Dr. Abbe again indicts tobacco as a cause of cancer of the mouth and includes cigars and cigarettes. “There is no reason to believe that smoker’s cancer is in any sense an inheritance… the fact of its unquestionable relation to the intemperate use of tobacco is established.”
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1917- Dr. George Fisher, M.D., authors The physical effects of smoking, which clearly demonstrates and documents the damages to health from cigarettes.
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1918- American soldier’s daily rations included cigarettes, until it was stopped in 1975

1918- Smoking and Cancer link 
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1918- Eminent authorities condemning tobacco use
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1919- Prof. James Ewing, A.M., M.D.,Sc.D., Neoplastic Diseases, a textbook on tumors.
Page 26 “The list of specific causes of tumors is small but enlarging, including the cancers of pipe-smokers…”
Page 109 “The cumulative effects of the habits of the individual are seen in smokers’ cancer of the lip, pharynx, and larynx…”
Page 820 “Tobacco has a predominant influence in the development of cancer of the buccal mucosa.” MEDICAL TEXTBOOK- Peer Reviewed
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1919- Dr. William J. Mayo, M.D., War Department Lectures, “Smoking is the cause of most cancer of the lip, the tongue and the floor of the mouth.”
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1920- Dr. A.C. Broders, M.D., Journal of the American Medical Association. Squamous cell epithelioma of the Lip. A study of five hundred and thirty-seven cases. March 6, 1920, Vol 74, No. 10 . “The risk of epithelioma of the lip in pipe smokers is six times the risk in those not smoking a pipe.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1920- Dr. William D. McNally, M.D., Chief chemist in the the Cook County Department of Public Health. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, A report of five cases of poisoning by nicotine, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 213–217, January 1920. The dangers of tobacco are evident from the medical data cited by Dr. McNally. On page 213, “One cigar contains a quantity of nicotine which would prove fatal to two persons if directly injected into the circulation. . . . The literature contains many references to tobacco poisoning where tobacco has been swallowed with suicidal intent, accidental poisonings. . . . Less severe poisonings have been noted by nearly every one upon beginning the use of tobacco, where the peripheral and nauseant actions predominate. Even chronic smokers often experience ill effects and pain from smoking.”
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1921- Dr. Joseph Colt Bloodgood, M.D., Professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University, Journal of the American Medical Association, October 29, 1921, Vol 77, No. 18 pages 1381-1387. CANCER OF THE TONGUE: A PREVENTABLE DISEASE. “Tobacco.-Among 160 cases of cancer of the tongue, it is distinctly stated in the history in only two cases, that the man did not use tobacco in any form. The evidence, therefore is overwhelming that the continuous and prolonged irritation from tobacco in some form is the chief factor in producing a lesion which may later develop into cancer.”
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1921- Authorities note the harmful effects of tobacco
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1921- Death caused by nicotine dose
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1922- Dr. John H. Kellogg, M.D., LL.D., F.A.C.S., Tobaccoism, or, How Tobacco Kills, Page 41- “Tobacco, by Incessant irritation, predisposes to mucous plaques and cancer.” Page 112- Tobacco Cancer illustration. Page 113- “That the use of tobacco may cause cancer of the mouth has been long known.”
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1922- Dr. John Daly McCarthy, M.A., Ph.D., Health and Efficiency, New York, Henry Holt and Company 1922. Pages 129-130. Dr. Holt outlines the Dartmouth College class of 1868 records which Professor Charles Emerson, the Dean of Dartmouth compiled which indicate the non-smokers of that class lived nearly 10 years longer than those who smoked. Textbook- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1922- Scathing charges against the AMA by the Illinois Medical Association
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1923- Dr. Edward Judd, M.D., & Dr. Gordon New, M.D., Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol XXXVI February 1923, Carcinoma of the tongue. “In about 9 out of 10 instances, cancer of the tongue occurs in men. Personal habits, particularly the use of tobacco is undoubtedly a factor.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1923- Dr. George Brewer, M.D., Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol XXXVI February 1923, Carcinoma of the lip and cheek. “The facts strongly incline one to look for some definite etiological factor [regarding cancer]. The one most frequently mentioned is tobacco smoking.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1923- Dr. Karl Theodor Fahr, M.D., Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie, Diskussionsbemerkung zu Teutschländer: Über Metaplasie und Krebsbildungen”, 1923; 19: 192. “the increase of deaths by lung cancer is in direct proportion to the increasing smoking and inhalation of cigarettes.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1924- Dr. Carly Seyfarth, M.D., Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, Lungenkarzinome in Leipzig 1924; vol. 50, no. 44, pages 1497-1499. Dr. Seyfarth reviewed 307 lung cancer cases autopsied at Liepzig’s University pathology institute. He found increases in the incidence of pulmonary carcinoma from 5.01 per cent during 1900 to 1906 to 8.75 per cent from 1919 to 1923. During the first half of 1924 there was an incidence of 15.5 per cent. Of the 307 cases, 258 were males, which coincided with his belief that tobacco use played a significant role in lung cancer etiology. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1925- Tobacco, Tombstone and Profit
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1925- Study linking smoking and cancer causation
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1926- Dr. John Fordyce, M.D., & Dr. George MacKee, M.D., Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, Volume 13, Number 5, May 1926, Diseases of the oral mucosa.“The influence of smoking cigars in the development of cancer of the mouth is emphasized”…” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1926- The medical effects of tobacco
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1927- Dr. J. M. Perrett, New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume 80, Number 4, October 1927, Primary Intrathoracic malignancy. “There is no primary lung cancer without a previous chronic inflammation…we have been struck by the excessive smoking of many patients.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1927- Dr. Frank E Tylecote, M.D., The Lancet, July 30, 1927, Cancer of the lung.
…”I think that in almost every case I have seen and known of the patient has been a regular smoker, generally of cigarettes.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1927- The AMA wants to prescribe whiskey
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1928- Dr. Herbert Lombard, M.D., & Dr. Carl Doering, M.D., New England Journal of Medicine, April 26, 1928, Cancer studies in Massachusetts, pages 481-487. “The use of tobacco has long been considered a factor in the incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity. …heavy smoking has some relation to cancer in general. 34 of 35 patients with cancers of the lung, lips, cheek, or jaw were smokers.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1928- Dr. Ernst Schönherr, M.D., Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Beitrag zur Statistik und Klinik der Lungentumoren, [Contribution to the statistical and clinical features of lung tumors] July 1928, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 436-450. Dr. Schönherr studied the significant increases in the incidence of lung and bronchial carcinoma in post war Germany, specifically in Chemnitz. He concluded that the etiology of lung cancer in non-smoking wives of smokers pointed directly to passive smoke inhalation as the primary contributing factor. Dr. Schönherr is credited with coining the phrase “secondhand smoke.Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1928- Dr. Charles G. Pease, M.D., Correspondence on Smoking
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1929- Dr. G.T. Mowat, M.D., The Glasgow Medical Journal, vol 112, 1929, The early stages of oral cancer. “…pipe smoking is the principal factor in epithelioma…” Of 244 cases of cancer, 239 were smokers. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1929- Dr. Fritz Lickint, M.D., Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Tabak und Tabakrauch als ätiologischer Factor des Carcinoms, pages 349-65; “In humans, tobacco can cause cancerous growths on the lips, tongue, oral mucous membrane, gums, and other parts of the digestive tract. The rise in cigarette use is linked to rise in lung cancer. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1929- Prof. James Ewing, A.M., M.D.,Sc.D., The causes and diagnosis of intraoral carcinoma. Prepared for and published in cooperation with the American Society for Cancer Control, Chicago Dental Society Official Bulletin, 9:6-9, 1929. “tongue, mouth and cheek cancers are caused by bad teeth, tobacco and syphilis, named in the order of their importance.”
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1930- The Shield, December 3, 1930, Vol. 11, No. 4, page 9 .”Tobacco and
Cancer”, by Dr. A.M. Wilkinson, “Cancer of the mouth, cancer of the throat, cancer of the lips, cancer of the tongue, cancer of the cheek, the most common cause of these things is poison caused by tobacco.”
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1930- Dr. Victor Mertens, M.D., Monatsschrift für Krebsbekämpfung [Monthly Journal of Cancer]. Is cigarette smoke the cause of lung cancer [Zigarettenrauch eine Ursache des Lungenkrebses]? 1930; 32: 82-91. Dr. Mertens, the editor of the Monatsschrift für Krebsbekämpfung, experimented on mice inhaling cigarette smoke to determine the cause of lung cancer. He summarized that “The shift in cancer from oral sites to the lungs is linked to the shift from pipes to inhaled cigarettes.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1931- Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman, LL.D., American Society for the Control of Cancer; Member American Association for Cancer Research; Associate Fellow American Medical Association; Associate Member American Academy of Medicine. Annals of Surgery, CANCER AND SMOKING HABITS,1 931; 93(1):50-67. “Smoking habits unquestionably increase the liability to cancer of the mouth, the throat, the esophagus, the larynx and the lungs. The increase in cancer of the lungs observed in this and many other countries, is, in all probability, to a certain extent directly traceable to the more common practice of cigarette smoking and the inhalation of cigarette smoke. The latter practice unquestionably increases the danger of cancer development…. which may in some cases injuriously affect non-smokers who are the victims of conditions over which they have little control.”
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1931- Dr. Gerhard Haase, M.D., Deutsche Monatsschrift für Zahnheilkunde, Zur Kenntnis der Leukoplakia oris und der Lippen- und Zungenkrebse bei Rauchern, Volume 49, pages 881-913, and 929-76, 1931. Dr. Haase reviewed the entire literature on tobacco and cancer extensively in 1931. He concluded on the basis of the very large number of clinical and experimental studies, that, given an existing predisposition, smoking and chewing tobacco, in addition to other external factors, are among the major causes of leukoplakia, cancer of the mouth, cancer of the lips and cancer of the tongue. Referenced in the 1964 Surgeon Generals Report and thousands of others throughout the medical community. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed and U.S. Government referenced FACTS
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1930- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Durch Tabak beim Kaninchen entwickeltes Carcinom [Tobacco-induced cancer in rabbits],1931;33:321. “For some time now I have placed special emphasis on the strong influence of tobacco in the production of certain types of cancer, based on the morbidity rate for patients studied in this Institute.”
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1932- Dr. William D. McNally, M. D., American Journal of Cancer, 16, 1502-1514. The tar in cigarette smoke and its possible effects….“Cigarette smoking is an important factor in the increase of cancer of the lungs.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1932- Dr. John Fraser, M.D., Annals of Surgery, Carcinoma of the Mouth and Tongue, no. 96; vol. 4, p. 488–514. ” In our series (105 cases) we have to record that in eighty eight male cases sixty-five were heavy pipe smokers, and of the remaining thirteen there was no individual who was a rigid non-smoker.” (p. 496) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1932- Dr. Adam Syrek, M.D., Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Zur Häufigkeitszunahme des Lungenkrebses, 1932, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 409-415. Dr. Syrek argued that it was hard to reconcile a non-tobacco aetiology with the mortality patterns he was finding in rural Poland. Dr. Syrek showed that many of the lung cancer deaths recorded at his institute were from rural areas, where cigarette smoking had become popular and polluting industries were virtually non-existent. Dr. Syrek also showed that the epidemic had struck Cracau itself, where there were still very few cars and little industry to speak of. By a process of elimination, Dr. Syrek concluded that “tobacco was the cause of the cancer epidemic.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1932- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Carcinoma developed in a smoking rabbit at three years. 7: 545-573, 1932. “The numerous and worthy clinical observations of carcinoma localizations in the mouth, larynx and lungs produced in heavy smokers, give tobacco the value of a carcinogenic agent.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1932- Bogen, E. and R.N. Loomis, American Journal of Cancer, Tobacco tar: An experimental investigation of its alleged carcinogenic action; vol. 16, pages 1515–1521. “The clinical relationship between smoking and the presence of cancers of the lips, tongue, and buccal surfaces has been often noted. More recently, the increasing incidence of cancer of the lung has been blamed on tobacco.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1933-11-25: The Journal of the American Medical Association, “after careful consideration of the extent to which cigarettes were used by physicians in practice,” publishes its first advertisement for cigarettes (Chesterfield), a practice that continued for 20 years.

1933- Dr. George H. Bigelow, M.D., Massachusetts Commissioner of Public Health, and Dr. Herbert L. Lombard, M.D., Cancer and other chronic diseases in Massachusetts, Published by Houghton Mifflin Company in Boston, New York, 355 pages. Also in the New England Journal of Medicine, October 26, 1933 Vol. 209 No. 17. This pioneering work included one of the first case-control studies demonstrating the relation of tobacco use to cancer of the buccal cavity. “buccal cavity cancer is more prevalent among excessive users of tobacco.” (p. 118)

Tobacco Lawsuit Reference
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US Congressional Reference
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US Surgeon General Referenced study
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Massachusetts Department of Public Health study.
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1933- Dr. Enrico Ferrari, Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, Tabakrauch und Lungenkarzinom [Tobacco smoke and lung cancer] vol. 80, page 942. Ferrari pointed out that tobacco tar was know to have “excellent cancer causing properties” Ferrari also claimed to have been long convinced (“without a doubt” )that cigarettes were a major cause for lung cancer Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1933- The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 was a United States federal law of the New Deal era which instituted price supports to save tobacco farmers from ruin during the Depression. It reduced agricultural production by paying farmers not to plant on part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus (Supply) and therefore effectively raise the value of crops (Demand).
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1934- ARSENIC, a known cancer-causing agent in cigarettes
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1934- Tobacco Injure the Human Bodij
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1935- Dr. Hayes E. Martin, M.D., Dr. Otto H. Pflueger, M.D., Archives of Surgery, Cancer of the cheek (Buccal Mucosa) Study of ninety-nine caes with results of treatment at the end of five years. May 1, 1935, Vol 30, No. 5:pages 731-747. Ninety nine cases of cancer of the cheek were encountered and analyzed from 1925-29. Dr. Martin and Dr. Pflueger determined that in oral cancers, tobacco “acts both by the production of heat and by chemical irritation.” (p. 732)
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1935- Fr. Thys, Revue belge de la Science Medicale 7: pages 640-644. [Belgian Journal of Medical Science], Note sur l’etiologie du carcinome bronchique [Note on the etiology of lung carcinoma]. In his review of etiology of lung cancer, Fr. Thys of the Fondation Médicale Reine Elisabeth in Brussels claimed that the observed shift in cancer incidence from the oral cavity to the lung is explained by tbe change from noninhaled pipes and cigars to inhaled cigarettes. “En conclusion, it nous semble legitime de faire un rapprochement entre le cancer bronchique, cancer des fumeurs d’apres-guerre, et al vogue de la cigarette.”
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1935- In his nationally syndicated column, Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association links smoking to cancer. He writes this even while selling significant advertising space to cigarette companies in the Journal.
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1935- Dr. Morris Fishbein, “If you run negative tobacco stories, you won’t keep tobacco advertisers.”

1935- Dr. Fritz Lickint, M.D., Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, Der Bronchialkrebs der Raucher [Bronchial cancer of smokers], vol 82, pages 1232-4. Dr. Lickint published an elegant review that considered time trends in lung cancer and cigarette smoking, ecological associations between smoking and lung cancer, autopsy series, experimental animal studies and clinical reports, which left no doubt that smoking was a significant cause of lung cancer. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1935- Prof. Dr. Otto Schürch, M.D., and Dr. Alfred Winterstein, Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Zürich. Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Frage Tabak und Krebs [Experimental Studies Concerning the Question of Tobacco and Cancer], 1935, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 76-92. “The common medical opinion is that there is a relationship between tobacco smoking and cancer.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1935- Dr. Herman Sharlit, M.D., New York State Journal of Medicine, Cigarette smoke as a health hazard, November 15, 1935, Vol. 35, No. 22. “It has been said frequently, and with some justification, that the medical profession broke faith with the public in failing to inveigh vigorously against smoking as a menace to health.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1936- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., El tabaco como cancerigeno [Tobacco as a carcinogenic agent]. Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental, 42: 287-336, 1936. “Tobacco exerts undoubtedly a cancer producing action which occurs in smokers in the tissues of direct application, oral cavity, tongue, lips, respiratory tract and lungs.” Of 500 patients with cancer of the mouth and tongue, 92 per cent were inveterate smokers, and 8 per cent were light smokers, and over 90 per cent were males . Of the 42 women having cancer of the mouth and larynx, all were heavy smokers. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1936- Dr. Aaron Arkin, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Chicago, Attending Physician Cook County and Mount Sinai Hospitals, and Dr. H. Wagner, M.D., Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol 106, No. 8, February 22, 1936. Primary Carcinoma of the Lung. “Ninety per cent of all our patients were chronic smokers, and we believe that the inhalation of tobacco smoke may be an important factor in producing chronic irritation with epithelial metaplasia in the bronchi or bronchioles.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1936 Dr. Earl C. Padgett, M.D., International Journal of Orthodontia and Oral Surgery, Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma, Volume 22, Issue 3, March 1936, Pages 283–293. “Tobacco also has some definite influence no the development of lip and oral cancer. It stimulates the epithelium, produces a chronic hyperemia, local erosions, edema, and lymphocytic lnfiltrates. In smoking, heat effects may be added. This is especially true in pipe smokers. Tobacco chewers are somewhat more prone to develop cancer where the quid is held against the cheek.” (p. 286) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1936- Dr. Rudolf Fleckseder, M.D., Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, Über den Bronchialkrebs und einige seiner Entstehungsbedingungen, [Bronchial Carcinoma and the Conditions of its Origin], Vol 83: pages 1585-1588. Among 54 male bronchiogenic carcinoma patients, 94.4 per cent, were smokers…(p 1588) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1937- Dr. Udo J. Wile, M.D. and Dr. Eugene A. Hand, M.D., Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA, Cancer of the lip, Results of therapy in four hundred and twenty five cases followed from one to ten years.* January 30, 1937, Vol 108, No. 5: pages 374-382.
p. 380, “Smoking is apparently of some importance in the background of cancer of the lip.”
*Read before the section on Dermatology and Syphilology at the Eighty Seventh Annual Session of the American Medical Association, Kansas City, MO., May 14, 1936.
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1937- Dr. Hugo H. Ahlbom, M.D., Acta Radiologica, Prädisponierende Faktoren für Plattenepithelkarzinom in Mund, Hals und Speiseröhre [Predisposition factors to squamous-cell carcinoma of the mouth, throat and esophagus],18 (1937): 163-85. “86% of 312 cases of cancer of the lip and 98% of 233 cases of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus were tobacco users.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1937- Prof. Dr. Otto Schürch, M.D., and Dr. Alfred Winterstein, Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Zürich. Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Experimenteller Beitrag zur Grage Tabak und Krebs [Experimental Contribution Concerning the Question of Tobacco and Cancer], 1937, Volume 46, pp 414-419. “The so-called tobacco carcinomas which we observe in hospitals are always tumors which developed after decades of exposure to tobacco. In our experiments we were able to produce carcinoma in every animal.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1937- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Expectrografila de los derivados obtenidos por destfilacion, directa de los tabacos y su relacion comol agentes cancerigenos. [Spectography of the derivatives obtained by direct distillation of tobacco and the relationship to carcinogenic agents.] 14 : 311-399, 1937. “In studying tobacco as a carcinogenic agent, I have found this action in multiple observations…” Of 5000 female cancer patients only 42 had cancer of the so-called smoke passages and all were heavy smokers. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1937- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, Der Tabak als krebserzeugendes Agens [Tobacco as a cancer- causing agent],1937; 63: 1268. “The experiments we conducted not only demonstrated the dangers to which the smoker is exposed, but also the role of tobacco as a carcinogenic agent. They also show to which of the different tobacco combustion products the actual etiological property can be attributed.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1937– In his nationally syndicated column, Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association again links smoking to cancer as he did in 1935. He writes this even while selling significant advertising space to cigarette companies in the Journal.
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1937- SMOKING GUN SECRET DOCUMENTS showing that Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, was complicit with Tobacco companies in the Diethylene Glycol controversy.
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1938- Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association writes, “there is no good evidence that tobacco smoking in moderation will shorten the average man’s life…”
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1938- Dr. Raymond Pearl, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins University, Science, showed that cigarette-smoking severely limited one’s life span in Tobacco Smoking and Longevity, Science 87 (1938) pages 216-217. “Smoking is associated with a definite impairment of longevity. . . This impairment is proportional to the habitual amount of tobacco usage by smoking, being great for heavy smokers and less for moderate smokers.” Of the (6,813 persons reported on, two-thirds of the nonsmokers had lived beyond sixty, but only 46 per cent of the heavy smokers reached age sixty. Time magazine suggested that Pearl’s results would frighten tobacco manufacturers to death and “make tobacco users’ flesh creep.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1938- Dr. Herman Sharlit, M.D., “I’m ashamed that Dr. Fishbein, as the spokesman for the medical profession, has allowed himself to become involved with the tobacco companies. It is a disgrace to the American Medical Association.”
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1938: Federal FOOD, DRUG AND COSMETICS ACT supercedes 1906 Act. Definition of a “drug” includes “articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals” and “articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals.” Where are you tobacco?

1938- Dr. W. J. McCormick, M.D., Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1938 Jan; vol. 38, no. 1: pages 67-71. Some medical effects of tobacco. “The predominant effects of tobacco have long been regarded as referable to its action on the cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems. “Tobacco heart” and “smoker’s cancer” were, perhaps, among the first clinically noted effects of tobacco.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1938- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental, El tabaco rubio como cancerigeno [Blond tobacco as a carcinogen]. 47: 5-22, 1938. “Experimentation conducted on animals reproduces the clinical process observed in man, which has resulted in that, from a hypothetical trial indicating tobacco as a carcinogen. This has become a positive fact.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1938- SMOKING GUN demonstrating that Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, not only ran a pay for play scam with the AMA Seal of Approval program, but that he also directed tobacco advertising schemes. He as well supposedly “declined” a $25,000 retainer from Phillip Morris tobacco.
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1938- March 7, Time Magazine, Vol. XXXI No. 10. Medicine: Coffin Nails
“Smoking is associated with a definite impairment of longevity.”
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1939- Dr. James Empringham, D.Sc., Ph.D., Smoking without injury can it be done?, Published by the Health Education Institute, Los Angeles, 1939, 48 pages. “Professor Raymond Pearl and other eminent statisticians prove that of 100,000 non-smokers at age 30, 66,564 were alive at age 60. Of 100,000 moderate smokers at age 30, only 61,911 were alive at age 60. Of 100,000 heavy smokers at age 30, only 46,226 were living at 60. This means that of every 100,000 smokers, 25,000 are insidiously killed by tobacco between the ages of 30 and 60 years.”
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1939- Dr. Morris Fishbein, Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association shows complicity in this letter to Philip Morris’s director of research, Willard Greenwald. “I do not see how the Food and Drug Administration can fail to declare dietlylene glycol a poisonous substance. On the other hand, I am quite convinced that as used in Philip Morris cigarettes it is not poisonous.” He also says “I do not believe the classification of diethylene glycol as a poison will harm the sale of Philip Morris cigarettes any more than the classification of nicotine as a poison tended to harm such sale.” 2 poisons that are safe to consume?
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1939- Dr. Fritz Lickint, M.D., In his monumental Tabak und Organismus; Handbuch der gesamten Tabakkunde.(Tobacco and the organism), Dr. Lickint chronicled an extraordinary range of ills deriving from smoking, chewing, or snorting tobacco. This 1,200-page volume is arguably the most comprehensive scholarly indictment of tobacco in the 20th century. Surveying 8,000 publications worldwide, it clearly linked tobacco for cancers all along the lips, tongue, lining of the mouth, jaw, esophagus, windpipe, and lungs. Medical Book- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1939- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Krebserzeugendes Benzpyren gewonnen aus Tabakteer [Cancer- causing benzopyrene from tobacco tar]. 1939; 49:588. “The carcinogenic action of tobacco tar is related to the presence of condensed benzene nuclei of hydrocarbon bodies in tar of the aromatic group.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1939- Prof. Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Krebserzeugende Einheit der verschiedenen Tabakteere [The carcinogenic element in various tobacco tars]. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 1939; 65: 963-67. “Tobacco smoking can be included among the other toxico-manias that can have serious consequences and tobacco itself can be considered as a carcinogenic substance that, through its hydrocarbon content works like the benzopyrene derivatives of coal.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1939- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Unidad cancerigena de los alquitranes de diversos tipos de tabacos. [Carcinogenic Unity of Tars From Different Kinds of Tobaccos] Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental, 14 : 349-405, 1939. “Experimentation has extensively confirmed that the previously clinically hypothetical relationship between tobacco and cancer is indeed an experimental fact, which represents an etiological factor of far-reaching social significance and offers an, explanation for the gradual increase in the development of cancer in certain parts of the body, particularly the lungs.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1939- Dr. Franz Hermann Müller, M.D., presents a comprehensive epidemiological study of the tobacco-lung cancer relationship. Tabakmissbrauch und Lungencarcinom (“Tobacco Misuse and Lung Carcinoma”) Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, 49 (1939): 57-85. He finds that “the extraordinary rise in tobacco use [is] the single most important cause of the rising incidence of lung cancer.” and that tobacco was not just a cause of lung cancer, but rather the major cause of lung cancer. Of 86 lung cancer cases, 83 of them were in first-hand smokers. The translated abstract was printed in the September 30, 1939, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, which anyone with any strong interest or stake in this topic would certainly have noticed. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1939- Dr. Alton Ochsner, M.D., and Dr. Michael DeBakey, M.D., Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Primary Pulmonary Malignancy, Vol 68: pages 435-451. Clinical review of primary lung cancer. “In our opinion the increase in smoking with the universal custom of inhaling is probably a responsible factor, as the inhaled smoke, constantly repeated over a long period of time, undoubtedly is a source of chronic irritation to the bronchial mucosa.” (p. 435) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1940: HEALTH: 7,121 cases of lung cancer reported in the US.

1940- Dr. J. L. Myers, M.D., Transactions of the American Laryngological Association, 62nd meeting, Pages 340-356. “smoking habits unquestionably increase the liability to cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, the larynx and the lungs.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1940- Dr. Angel H. Roffo, M.D., Monatsschrift für Krebsbekämpfung, Krebserzeugende Tabakwirkung [The carcinogenic effects of tobacco] 1940;8:97-102. “A summary of numerous experiments carried out at the Cancer Institute in Buenos Aires which provide evidence for the carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoking.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1941- Dr. Alton Ochsner, M.D., and Dr. Michael DeBakey, M.D., Archives of Surgery, Carcinoma of the Lung, Vol 42: pages 209-258. The article noted the parallel rise in smoking and lung cancer, concluding that the latter was due mostly to the former, and included a lengthy bibliography of sources from multiple countries. Clinical review of lung cancer. “It is our definite conviction that the increase in the incidence of pulmonary carcinoma is due largely to the increase in smoking, particularly cigaret smoking, which is universally associated with inhalation. Every one of our patients, with the exception of 2 women, was an excessive smoker. (p. 221)
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1941- Dr. Frank R. Menne, M.D., and Dr. Melvin R. Anderson, M.D., Journal of the American Medical Association, Bronchiogenic Carcinoma: Incidence in the Pacific Northwest, with a comment on eighty four cases, Volume 117, pages 2215-2222. “Nicotine and tar contents are thought to be the most harmful. The former is an irritant of mucous membranes, and the latter is regarded as carcinogenic.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1941- SMOKING GUN- In response to the very bad news coming out including Dr. Müller’s work in Germany and Dr. Roffo’s work in Argentina, Edward S. Harlow, American Tobacco’s Assistant Director of Research, circulated an internal memorandum directed to his superior Hiram R. Hanmer, outlining “The importance of Biological Research”. Referring to research funded or conducted by American Tobacco, which he called “impartial research”, Harlow predicted it would would show that smoking had only “a negligible effect on the health of individuals.” He then reveals a smoking gun bit of information when he says, “But this would never be suspected by reading the extensive medical literature on tobacco.” He concludes with, “The tobacco industry is very much in need of some friendly research.”
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1941- Gene Tunney, Former World Heavyweight Boxing Champion, writes Nicotine Knockout or the Slow Count in the December 1941 Reader’s Digest, pages 21-24. “A great athlete and conditioner of men indicts tobacco for poison and fraud…The tarry substances coat your tongue, blacken your teeth, and are thought to play an important part in causing mouth and tongue cancer, found oftenest among heavy smokers.”
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1942- New York State Medical Journal advertises the Camel cigarettes booth at the American Medical Association (AMA) convention.
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1942- Journal of the American Medical Association advertises the Phillip Morris booth at the American Medical Association (AMA) convention.
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1942- The nationwide newsletter In fact with nearly 150,000 subscribers, publishes 5 scathing indictments against tobacco in the Dec. 14, 1942 issue. (No. 114) Vol. VI, No. 10.
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Sending Poison to Our Armed Forces? The Suppressed Story of Tobacco, by George Seldes, Editor.
“Tobacco impairs the health of all users, moderate and heavy. At certain ages 61% more heavy users of tobacco die than nonusers. But the tobacco companies spend fortunes–four (Camels, Lucky Strikes, Chesterfields and Old Golds) spend $50,000,000 annually — to keep the American public in ignorance.”

Tobacco Does Shorten Life, by George Seldes, Editor.
“This is the story which Time magazine said was enough “to scare the life out of tobacco manufacturers and make the tobacco users’ flesh creep …”

Tobacco Smoking and Longevity, by the late Dr. Raymond Pearl, Ph.D.
“In this group of nearly 7000 men the smoking of tobacco was associated definitely with an impairment of life duration and the amount or degree of this impairment increased as the habitual amount of smoking increased.”

Nothing Can Be Said in Favor of Smoking, by Dr. M.F. Ashley Montagu, Ph.D.
“There is so far absolutely nothing to say in favor of smoking; all the positive findings of scientific research point only to its damaging effects.”

The Clinical Aspect of Tobacco Smoking, by Dr. Edwin J. Grace, M.D., FACS.
“Cancer of the mouth, lips, tongue, larynx and pharynx is more prevalent in smokers than in nonsmokers…”

1943- Dr. Eberhard Schairer and Dr. Erich Schöniger, Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung, Lungenkrebs und Tabakverbrauch, 54 (1943): 261-269; the increased incidence of lung cancer was “due to the increase in tobacco consumption.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1943- Dr. W. S. Wallace, M. D., and Harold G. Jackson, M. D., Texas State Journal of Medicine, Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A resume and some newer concepts, vol. 28: pages 605-612. “We believe that tobacco smoking plays a definite role in the causation of primary lung carcinoma.” (p. 607) “In connection with tobacco smoke we should like to point out the increase in incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma in women in the past several decades and the relationship of this to the increased incidence of smoklng in women during this period.” (p. 607) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1943- Dr. Bertil Ebenius, M.D., Cancer of the lip. A clinical study of 778 cases with particular regard to predisposing factors and radium therapy. Stockholm : Kungl. boktryckereit, P.A. Norstedt & sönder, 1943, 234 pages. “There can be no doubt that pipe smoking is an important predisposing factor in lip cancer, while other forms of the use of tobacco are of subordinate importance.” Medical Study- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1943- Dr. Edwin J. Grace, M.D., F.A.C.S., American Journal of Surgery, Tobacco smoking and cancer of the lung, Volume 60: pages 361 to 364. “95 percent of all cancers of the lung, larynx and pharynx occur in smokers.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1944- RJ Reynolds FTC hearing February 7, 1944 Page 76, Testimony of Dr. Anton J. Carlson, M.D., “the amount of nicotine in one cigarette, put into a soluble form and injected into the blood, would kill a human being.”
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1944- Editorial, November 25, Journal of the American Medical Association, ENVIRONMENTAL CANCER; Vol. 126 (13): page 836. It clearly lists cancers which result from certain habits such as “cancer of the lip and mouth in smokers”.
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1944- Dr. Grace M. Roth, Ph.D. Mayo Clinic, Captain John B. McDonald, U.S. Army Medical Corps, and Dr. Charles Sheard, Ph.D. Mayo Clinic, Journal of the American Medical Association, The Effect of Smoking Cigarets, Volume 125, pages 761-767. “the smoking of standard cigarets should be avoided in the presence of peripheral vascular disease.” (p 767) “the habit of giving an injured soldier a cigaret is not advisable if arterial injury has occured, as segmental spasm of the artery is common in such trauma and the vasoconstriction in a person sensitive to tobacco may cause irreparable damage.” (p 767) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1944-Dr. Edwin J. Grace, M.D., F.A.C.S., Medical Times, The toxicity of combustion gases with special reference to tobacco smoke as a carcinogenic factor, (New York) Volume 72: pages 322-334. “During my unusual opportunities over a period of years I have noted that cancer of the lip and tongue was almost invariably associated with a smoking habit dating back many years. In cancer of the lung, often occuring in cigarette smokers, this toxic irritant (tobacco) is deposited in the bronchi during the process of inhaling smoke. There appears to be no doubt whatsoever that, in the heavy smoker, tar, with its chemical by-products, enters into the etiological picture in the development of neoplasms.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1945- Evelyn A. Potter and Mildred R. Tully, Biometricians, State Department of Public Health, Boston, Mass. American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health: The Statistical Approach to the Cancer Problem in Massachusetts. May 1945, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 485-490. “There was a definite association between cancer of the buccal cavity and the use of tobacco.” (p. 488) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1945- Dr. Alton Ochsner, M.D., Bulletin of the American Cancer Society, Cancer of the lung, Vol 27: pages 104-106. “there is a distinct parallelism between tbe incidence of cancer of tbe lung and the sale of cigarettes…” “tobacco contains a tar which has a carcinogenic effect and that the application of this tar to tbe skin and the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract in animals will produce cancer.” (p. 105) Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1945- Dr. Paul H. Holinger, M.D., Dr. H. James Hara, M.D., and Dr. Edwin F. Hirsch, M.D., Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Bronchogenic Carcinoma: An analysis of 175 proved cases. Vol 54, No.1, March 1945. “It is generally known that cancer among smokers is much more prevalent in the so-called smoke track-the lips, mouth, larynx and bronchi than in nonsmokers. Ninety percent of a large series of patients observed at the Cook County Hospital were smokers.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1946-SMOKING GUN- A July 29, 1946, letter from Dr. Harris B. Parmele, Lorillard’s director of research to its manufacturing committee states: “Certain scientists and medical authorities have claimed for many years that the use of tobacco contributes to cancer development in susceptible people. Just enough evidence has been presented to justify the possibility of such a presumption.”
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1947- Sir Ernest Kennaway, M.D., Royal Society, and Lady Nina Marion Kennaway, M.D., A Further Study of the Incidence of Cancer of the Lung and Larynx, British Journal of Cancer 1:260-298, 1947. Page 298 “Among various possible factors which have been suggested to account for the increase (in lung cancer) is tobacco smoke; the consumption of tobacco has risen, and so has the percentage of it smoked in the form of cigarettes, of which the smoke is often inhaled; such an effect of tobacco would accord well with the absence of social gradient.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1948- Dr. W. F. Wassink, Ph.D., The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde [The Dutch Journal of Medicine] Ontstaansvoorwaarden voor longkanker [The Conditions Under which Lung Cancer Develops] 1948 ; vol. 92 :pages 3732-47. it is concluded that smoking, and not occupational factors or air pollution, is the most important cause of lung cancer in The Netherlands.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1948- Journal of The American Medical Association, Dr. Morris Fishbein writes, “more can be said in behalf of smoking as a form of escape from tension than against it . . . there does not seem to be any preponderance of evidence that would indicate the abolition of the use of tobacco as a substance contrary to the public health.”
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No preponderance of evidence? Really?

1949- The New York Times, Cigarettes linked to cancer in lungs
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1950 should have closed the books on the smoking and cancer link. Five case–control studies published within a nine-month period reported that cigarette smoking was associated with lung cancer in men. However, the money train kept on moving, and the AMA kept publishing tobacco advertisements.

1950- Dr. Ernest Wynder M.D., & Dr. Evarts Graham, M.D., Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) May 27, 1950. They wrote Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiologic Factor in Bronchiogenic Carcinoma. …“use of tobacco, especially cigarettes, seems to be an important factor in the induction of bronchiogenic carcinoma.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1950- Dr. Robert Schrek, M.D., Dr. Lyle A. Baker, M.D., Dr. George P. Ballard, M.D., & Dr. Sydney Dolgoff, M.D. Cancer Research 1950; Volume 10, pages 49-58.Tobacco Smoking as an Etiologic Factor in Disease. I. Cancer* …“cigarette smoking was an etiologic factor in cancer of the respiratory tract.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1950- Sir Richard Doll, M.D. and Sir A. Bradford Hill, Ph.D., British Medical Journal, September 30, 1950; Vol 2: Pages 739-48. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung: preliminary report….“it is concluded that smoking is an important factor in the cause of carcinoma of the lung.” Both Dr. Hill and Dr. Bradford were later Knighted for their work. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed

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1950- Dr. Morton L. Levin, M.D., Dr. Hyman Goldstein, M.D., and Dr. Paul R. Gerhardt, M.D.
Journal of the American Medical Association, JAMA May 27, 1950, volume 143, pages 336 to 338. Cancer and tobacco smoking: a preliminary report. “Excessive and prolonged use of tobacco, especially cigarets, seems to be an important factor in the induction of bronchiogenic carcinoma. Ninety-six and one-tenth per cent of patients with cancer of the lungs who had a history of smoking had smoked for over twenty years.”
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1950- Dr. Clarence A. Mills, M.D., and Dr. Marjorie Mills Porter, M.D. Cancer Research, September 1950, Volume 10: pages 539-542. Tobacco smoking habits and cancer of the mouth and respiratory system. “…all forms of smoking are significantly higher among victims of respiratory tract cancer than among the controls. Cigarette smoking seems to bear a highly significant relation to cancers of the respiratory tract”… Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1950- “Dr. Fishbein’s policy is to jump on those who cannot defend themselves or are to weak to defend themselves.”E. E. Free

1950- Reader’s Digest “How harmful are cigarettes?”
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1951- 27 March: The Central Health Services Committee (CHSC), Standing Advisory Committee on Cancer and Radiotherapy, the key Government group examining smoking and health report that “Professor Bradford Hill and Dr. Doll are satisfied that the case against smoking as such is proven” The Central Health Services Committee, Standing Advisory Committee on Cancer and Radiotherapy, Smoking and Cancer of the Lung, Note by the Secretary, 1951, 27 March [L&D Gov/Pro 4]

1951- Dr Alton Ochsner et al published “A review of Experiences with 1,458 Cases of Bronchogenic Carcinoma.” He declared “I am firmly convinced of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Men who have been heavy smokers should have routine chest X-rays at least every six months.”

1951- The Central Health Services Committee, Standing Advisory Committee on Cancer and Radiotherapy, Smoking and Cancer of the Lung, Note by the Secretary, 1951, 27 March [L&D Gov/Pro 4]. The report states, “Professor Bradford Hill and Dr. Doll are satisfied that the case against smoking as such is proven.”
Government Admission- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1952- Sir Richard Doll, M.D. and Sir A. Bradford Hill, Ph.D., British Medical Journal, December 13, 1952; Vol 2: Pages 1271-86. A study of the aetilogy of carcinoma of the lung. “Of the 1,357 men with carcinoma of the lung 7, or 0.5%, were non-smokers. We therefore conclude that smoking is a factor, and an important factor, in the production of carcinoma of the lung.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1952- P. Lorillard introduces the most dangerous cigarettes ever manufactured. Kent cigarettes with the “Micronite” filter, at a press conference at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City. Lorillard boasted that the “Micronite” filter offered “the greatest health protection in cigarette history.” Its secret: crocidolite asbestos.

1952 Waldorf Astoria Kent overview
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1952 Micronite Press release
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1952 Kent cigarette meeting minutes
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Kent Micronite Filter
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1952 Warn Born Cigarette press release
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Lorillard came closer than its rivals–then or since–to admitting that smoking was harmful. It said Kent’s “Micronite” filter offered “the greatest health protection in cigarette history,” and was designed for “the one out of every three smokers who is unusually sensitive to tobacco tars and nicotine.”
kent-pic1In its advertising, Lorillard said its quest for the new filter “ended in an atomic energy plant, where the makers of Kent found a material being used to filter air of microscopic impurities.”

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Its the finest material known for filtering smoke.

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Another Journal of the American Medical Association advertisement described Micronite as “a pure, dust-free, completely harmless material. . . .”

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In reality, the “dust-free, completely harmless material” contained crocidolite, also called “African blue” asbestos for its origin and bluish color, and regarded by many experts as the most hazardous of the six asbestos minerals.

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It was used in the filter from 1952 at least until 1957, a period in which Americans puffed their way through more than 13 billion Kents.* U.S. Court Verified.

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Dr. Morris Fishbein, the former Editor of the Journal of The American Medical Association, and a Lorillard consultant directed the marketing blitz which included advertising in medical journals and mailing gift boxes of Kent cigarettes to physicians, along with “Dear Doctor” letters talking up the advantages for “patients whom you have felt obliged to advise to cut down or cut out smoking.” Dr. Fishbein ensured that every Doctor on the AMA mailing list got a free carton of asbestos laden Kent cigarettes.
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This abominable promotion occurred despite the fact it was widely known that asbestos was a significant health hazard.

Detailed Asbestos timeline

1918 Prudential life insurance company lists asbestos hazard
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1924 Pulmonary Asbestosis article in the BMJ
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1930 landmark asbestos study
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1935 Lynch Asbestos Report
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1935 MetLife study showed that 53% of plant workers had asbestosis
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1935 Surgeons of the American Railroads warn of asbestos exposure
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1936 Tubercle Volume 18, Issue 3, December 1936, Pages 100–101 A case of oat cell carcinoma of the lung occurring in asbestosis
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1944 JAMA editorial listing Asbestos as a carcinogen
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1947 British report linking asbestos to lung cancer
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1949 Exxon report linking asbestos exposure to lung disease
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The Journal of the American Medical Association even published several landmark articles regarding asbestos under Dr. Fishbein’s leadership. Here are a few examples.
1928 JAMA reports on pulmonary asbestosis
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1944 SMOKING GUN JAMA article links asbestos exposure to cancer
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Dr. Morris Fishbein was a great multi-tasker who while editing 6 different medical journals, even managed to direct pro-tobacco research projects.

1952 pro tobacco research payoff mentioning Fishbein
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1952 pro tobacco research payoff mentioning Fishbein 2
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1952- Dr. Morris Fishbein accepted $2500 for consulting on the Kent cigarette and marketing efforts.
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1952- Letter to Dr. Morris Fishbein from Lorillard mentions Kent cigarettes radioactivity. 1952 Fishbein Employer mentions KENT cigarette radioactivity
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1952- East Walpole, Massachusetts-based manufacturer Hollingsworth & Vose Co. writes a “100% percent indemnity agreement” into its contract with Lorillard and the H&V owned subsidiary, H&V Specialties Co., Inc. Specialties supplied the crocidolite asbestos material for use in Lorillard’s Kent Micronite filtered cigarettes. H&V Specialties Co., Inc., was created specifically to supply Lorillard from plants in West Groton and Rochdale, near Boston.
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*The workplace environment at H&V Specialties Co. was so devastating that the attached study demonstrated that out of 33 men who worked in the factory making Kent filters from 1951-1954, 28 have died. 15 deaths from cancer: 8 from lung cancer, 5 from malignant mesothelioma and 2 from other types of cancers. An additional 7 deaths were the result of other lung disease, 5 of which were asbestos-related. Of the remaining 5 workers still alive, 4 have been diagnosed with pulmonary asbestosis.
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1957- Lorillard quietly stopped doing business with H&V Specialties Co
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Kent Micronite Filter
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It’s hard to think of anything more horrible than adding a deadly carcinogen to a product that already causes cancer—and then bragging about the health benefits.

1952- Cigarettes cause lung and throat cancer, by Daniel Crean. This widely available pamphlet highlighted the existing evidence regarding the harms of tobacco usage including longevity.

If you take 300 people at the age of 30, 100 of them non-smokers, 100 light smokers and 100 heavy smokers:
Of the 100 non-smokers, 66 will reach 60 years;
Of the 100 light smokers, 61 will reach 60 years;
Of the 100 heavy smokers, 46 will reach 60 years.
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1952-09: READER’S DIGEST republishes Roy Norr’s “Cancer by the Carton” article (December, 1952) from the October, 1952 Christian Herald. Norr was the publisher of possibly the first modern anti-smoking periodical, the “Norr Newsletter about Smoking and Health” (NYC)
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1953- Dr. Marja Koulumies, M.D., Acta Radiologica, Smoking and Pulmonary Carcinoma Vol. 39, pages 255-260 “Among 336 men with pulmonary carcinoma and in whom the diagnosis was verified histologically, smokers account for 99.7 per cent.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1953- Consumer Reports, “Are they harmful?” February 1953, “some doctors insist that smoking, particularly cigarette smoking…causes cancer of the lung.”
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1953- SMOKING GUN- Dr. Claude E. Teague, RJ Reynolds’ Assistant Research Director in a SECRET memorandum titled, Survey of cancer research with emphasis upon possible carcinogens from tobacco. This document is one of the most damning tobacco documents published to date. “Studies of clinical data tend to confirm the relationship between heavy and prolonged smoking and incidence of cancer of the lung.” It also mentioned “The occurence of lung cancer in a male nonsmoker is a rare phenomenon.” AND “94.1% of the male patients with cancer of the lungs were found to be cigarette smokers…” It concluded with “In view of the facts presented in this report it is recommended that management take cognizance of the problem and its implications on our industry, and that positive research action be planned and initiated without delay.”
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1953- SMOKING GUN- April 13, 1953 letter from then future Senator Albert David Baumhart, Jr., Public Relations Director at Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp., in Toledo, Ohio, to Dr. H. B. Parmele, Director of Research for F. Lorillard Company. Mr. Baumhart was providing “data concerning possible health hazards which might result from the ingestion of Fiberglas fibers.” 1953- SMOKING GUN- April 13, 1953 letter from then future Senator Albert
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Part 1
May 5, 1936 letter from Dr. Leroy U. Gardner, M.D., to W.C. Hazard, P.A. Industrial Hygiene Engineer for the United States Public Health Service. dusts like silica and asbestos were “known to produce fibrosis of the lungs”
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Part 2
May 9, 1943 excerpt from the proceedings of the Rhode Island Industrial Health Institute. W.C. Hazard, P.A. Industrial Hygiene Engineer for the United States Public Health Service warns that asbestos had been “definitely proved” to be a “disabling disease of the lungs.”
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Part 3
June 4, 1953 Test results from Owens Corning Testing Division showing asbestos having been removed from the Kent Micronite filtered cigarettes by simply tapping them onto a glass slide.
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1953- New England Journal of Medicine, Editorial, September 10, 1953, Vol 249: pages 465-466. Cancer of the lung, “The latest study of Doll and Hill, based on 1465 patients with cancer of the lung and 1465 matched controls, was carefully conducted and yielded evidence of an association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer so strong as to be considered proof within the everyday meaning of the word”, (p. 465) “If similar data had incriminated a food contaminant that was not habit forming and was not supported by the advertising of a financial empire, there is little doubt that effective countermeasures would have followed quickly.” (p. 466)
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1953- Dr. Ernest Wynder M.D., Dr. Evarts Graham, M.D., & Dr. Adele Croninger, M.D., Cancer Research, Experimental Production of Carcinoma with Cigarette Tar, Vol. 13, No. 12, pages 855-64, December 1953. The conclusion is undeniable. “Mice treated with cigarette tar developed cancer at about the same point in their lifespan, and in about the same percentages as had been observed in humans: This corresponds roughly with the fact already noted that in the human about 30-35 years of smoking are required for the production of bronchiogenic carcinoma.” The study even appeared in LIFE MAGAZINE.
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1953- New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Ernest Wynder, M.D., and Jerome Cornfield, B.S., Cancer of the Lung in Physicians; 248: 441-444. “During the past two years, nine separate investigations have presented evidence that tobacco smoking is associated with the development of bronchogenic carcinoma.”
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1953- SMOKING GUN- Edwin F. Dakin, Hill & Knowlton economic writer in a SECRET memorandum to the members of the planning committee of the TIRC (Tobacco Industry Research Council). Hill & Knowlton, 1953:2. This document lists multiple damning comments made by tobacco company research directors showing that not only are cigarettes addictive, but they cause cancer, including; “It’s fortunate for us that cigarettes are a habit they can’t break.” As well as, “Boy! wouldn’t it be wonderful if our company was first to produce a cancer free cigarette. What we could do to competition!”
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1953- Doris A. Sadowsky, Alexander G. Gilliam, Jerome Cornfield, Investigators of the National Cancer Institute. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1953 Apr; vol. 13, no. 5: pages 1237–1258. The Statistical Association Between Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung, “..it is concluded that the following associations are demonstrated in this series: …b) between cigarette smoking and laryngeal cancer, and c) between cigarette smoking and cancer of the lung. Since previous studies of a similar nature have also demonstrated associations between these types of smoking and cancer of the lip, larynx, and lung, it is concluded that these associations are real. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1953- Time Magazine publishes the article “Beyond any Doubt“, Nov 30: Vol. 62 Issue 22, page 62. It references cancer causing agents in cigarette smoke and states, “Our experiments have proved it beyond any doubt.” This blows the tobacco industry public defense out of the water. Even Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, Research Director at Manhattan Memorial, and tobacco company lackey, agrees by saying, “The underlying medical question is settled.” National Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1953- Numerous tobacco companies have a system of delivering free cigarettes to Doctors.
This tactic also became very popular with politicians and their staffers.
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1953- Dr. Alton Ochsner gives a speech in NYC, saying, “the male population of the United States would be decimated if cigarette smoking increases as it has in the past unless some steps are taken to remove the cancer-producing factor from cigarettes.” This was reported around the world.
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1954- U.S. Tobacco Industry Research Committee places nationwide full-page ad, “A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers,” reassuring them that it is safe to smoke.
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1954- SMOKING GUN– TOBACCO COMPANY ADMISSION, Liggett & Myers Conference on March 25, 1954 SECRET internal memo. Dr. Frederick Randolph Darkis, Ph.D., (Director of Research at Liggett & Myers, the maker of Chesterfield’s) Dr. Darkis stated that “If we can eliminate or reduce the carcinogenic agent in smoke we will have made real progress.”
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1954-SMOKING GUN– In a June 22, 1954 memo, Dr. Willard Machle, M.D., Former Assistant Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and a scientific consultant to Liggett discussed a massive American Cancer Society study on smoking and health. “The findings demonstrated unequivocally that deaths from coronary heart disease were about double in cigarette smokers vs. nonsmokers.” The memo went on: “Figures for lung cancer should settle the argument for a long time.”
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1954- Sir Richard Doll, M.D. and Sir A. Bradford Hill, Ph.D., British Medical Journal,
June 26, 1954; Vol 2: Pages 1451-1455. The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits: a preliminary report. The study equated cancer to the amount of tobacco smoked, and revealed a “steadily rising mortality from deaths due to cancer of the lung as the amount of tobacco smoked increases.” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1954- UK Government admission, February 12, 1954- UK Minister of Health Iain Macleod announces the findings of the British Standing Advisory Committee on Cancer and Radiotherapy in the House of Commons. The study officially links smoking with lung cancer. While sweating and famously chain smoking, Minister Macleod states that, “it must be regarded as established that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer of the lung.” The announcement received wide publicity in the popular press.
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1954- SMOKING GUN SECRET MEMO- April 26, 1954 letter from Lorillard research director Harris B. Parmele to company president W.J. Halley stated that researchers had found “traces of mineral fiber” in the smoke. “We are embarked upon a program of attempting to work out a method for the elimination of the presence of such fibers in the smoke,” the letter said. The mineral in question is asbestos, and the company knew that smokers were inhaling it.
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1954- Dr. E. Cuyler Hammond, Sc.D., Director of statistical research at the American Cancer Society, and Dr. Daniel Horn, Ph.D., Journal of the American Medical Association, The Relationship Between Human Smoking Habits and Death Rates – A Follow Up Study of 187,766 Men, August 7, 1954, Vol 155, No. 15: pages 1316-1328. “Deaths from cancer were definitely associated with regular cigarette smoking.” as well as, “regular cigarette smoking and death rates from lung cancer reflect cause and effect relationships.” “…the case for cigarette smoking causing lung cancer has been proved “beyond a reasonable doubt”. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1954- SMOKING GUN SECRET MEMO- September 21, 1954, H & V Specialties Co., Inc., Assistant Technical Director Peter Breymeier writes that after a meeting with Lorillard research director Harris B. Parmele, that “Dr. Parmele’s main emphasis was to find a way of anchoring asbetos fibers…” He noted that Dr. Parmele was afraid competitors would attack them regarding asbestos and noted that asbestos is cancer causing, and that…“All efforts are to be exerted to solve the asbestos-dust-in-Kent smoke problem.” 
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1954- SMOKING GUN SECRET MEMO- October 1, 1954, H & V Specialties Co., Inc., Assistant Technical Director Peter Breymeier writes to Lorillard research director Harris B. Parmele, and mentions “In line with the discussion of September 21, our efforts have been concentrated on the problem of anchoring the asbestos in the present Micronite filter construction.”
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1954- October 11, The Public Health Cancer Association of America
“RESOLVED, that there is sufficient evidence available of a relationship between smoking and lung cancer to justify advising the public to stop smoking cigarettes…”
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1954- October 22, American Cancer Society, Inc.
“RESOLVED: That the American Cancer Society emphasize to the American people that the presently available evidence indicates an association between-smoking, particularly cigarette smoking, and lung cancer, and to a lesser degree other forms of cancer…”
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1954- SMOKING GUN SECRET MEMO- October 27, 1954 letter from Lorillard research director Harris B. Parmele to *Dr. Ernest Fullam of Ernest Fullam Laboratories. “Under separate cover we are sending you six more lots of Kent cigarettes, numbered from 13 to 18 inclusive. Again each lot represents a different treatment for the purpose of eliminating the occurence of mineral fibers in the smoke.” The mineral fibers were asbestos, and this document again shows that Lorillard knew that smokers were inhaling it.
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*In the trial trial testimony of Douglas Hallgren, August 4, 1995, in HOROWITZ v. RAYBESTOS-MANHATTAN INC., Mr. Hallgren demonstrated the reckless disregard that Lorillard showed for smokers’ health. Lorillard continued to aggressively market a product that they knew was releasing asbestos directly into customers’ airways. By the way… They are still in business today.

Mr. Hallgren is an expert in electron microscopy, and was the assistant to Dr. Fullam when they conducted numerous tests of Kent cigarettes for Lorillard in 1954. He explained that the field of electron microscopy studies micrometeorites. He provided a summary of his educational and professional background, including his employment with Fullam Laboratories. He discussed the difficulties of using the RCA microscope at Fullam Laboratories in 1954. He described how the smoking machine worked, explaining that water is run through it and a vacuum is created in the little flask. The witness discussed how he identified particulates in cigarette smoke. He also commented upon the identification of asbestos fibers which were continously released from Kent cigarettes.
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A brief excerpt of trial testimony is as follows;
10 ALL OF THE CORRESPONDENCE INDICATES BASED ON THIS INFORMATION THEY REPEATEDLY SAID OUR
11 FILTERS ARE RELEASING FIBERS AND WE NEED TO TEST NEW FILTERS
12 WITH PREPARATIONS AND OTHER THINGS TO STOP THIS RELEASE.
13 THE COURT: WELL, YOU ARE INTRODUCING THE EVIDENCE
14 TO SHOW TWO THINGS: ONE, THAT KENT CIGARETTE FILTERS
15 RELEASE FIBERS UNDER THESE TEST CONDITIONS.
16 MR. HARLEY: RIGHT. AND WAS —
17 THE COURT: AND KENT KNEW IT.
18 MR. HARLEY: AND LORILLARD KNEW IT.
19 THE COURT: LORILLARD KNEW IT.

1954- Hollingsworth & Vose president A.K. Nicholson stated in a November 18, 1954 SECRET memo: “It is Lorillard’s belief that asbestos must be eliminated from the Kent cigarette as soon as possible because of a whispering campaign started by their competitors of the harmful effects of asbestos.” As a result, the memo said, H&V would “discontinue that part of our research program devoted to the fixing of asbestos fibres and direct the entire attention of the program toward the complete elimination of asbestos.”
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Even so, Lorillard continued using asbestos in the filters for the next 2 years, and continued to sell existing stocks of Kents for several more months beyond that. Here is a report on the testing of original Kents.
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1954- New York Times, “Dr. Alton Ochsner, former presidnet of the American Cancer
Society, said “there was already “massive proof” that cigarete smoking caused lung cancer.”
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1954- Smoking and Cancer, A Doctor’s Report By; Dr. Alton Ochsner, M.D. Published by Julian Messner, Inc., 8 West 40th Street, New York, 86 pages

“CIGARETTES CAUSE CANCER”
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1954- Leonard Engel writes, Do We Have to Give Up Smoking? Harper’s Magazine, December 1954, pp. 25-30 “there is a statistical association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the lung.”
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1955- On May 31, 1955 and June 7, 1955, the CBS TV current events documentary news program “See It Now” becomes the first television show linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer and other diseases. The 2 part report titled Cigarettes and lung cancer part I and II wre hosted by the famous Edward R. Murrow. The show presented doctors, scientists, and tobacco industry spokesmen who discussed evidence pro and con linking cigarette smoking to lung cancer. (For the first time on TV, Edward R. Murrow is not seen smoking. He had not quit; he felt it was “too late” to stop. Murrow died of lung cancer in 1965.)

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1956- Dr. Charles S. Cameron, Medical and Scientific Director of the American Cancer Society writes in The Atlantic Monthly, “Most of the scientists who have given thought and study to the matter appear to agree that an association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the lung does exist.”
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1956- Editorial, British Medical Journal, June 30, 1956; Pages 1533-34. Aetiology of cancer of the Larynx. “D. A. Sadowsky and his colleagues found, for example, that the relationship between laryngeal cancer and smoking was characteristically a relationship with cigarette smoking.”
Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1956- SMOKING GUN- Dr. Robert Newell DuPuis, Ph.D., Philip Morris’s research director, wrote a July 20, 1956 confidential memo to Philip Morris high executives noting as advantages of ventilated cigarettes that (a) “decreased carbon monoxide and nicotine are related to decreased harm to the circulatory system as a result of smoking” (implicitly recognizing that carbon monoxide and nicotine from smoke harm the circulatory system); (b) “decreased carbon monoxide indicates more complete combustion of the cigarette, and would be expected to result in destruction of part of any undesirable hydrocarbons which might be present in smoke, specifically polynuclear hydrocarbons” (known to be carcinogenic); and (c) “Decreased irritation is desirable not only from the subjective viewpoint but also as a partial elimination of a potential cancer hazard. Irritation of lung cilia can decrease or eliminate the ability of cilia to remove foreign substances such as deposited smoke solids from the lung. Extreme irritation may also lead to damage to lung cells, with increased chance of successful attack by foreign substances in the lung.”
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1956- Sir Richard Doll, M.D. and Sir A. Bradford Hill, Ph.D., British Medical Journal, Br Med J. November 10, 1956; Vol. 10: Pages 1071–1081. Lung Cancer and Other Causes of Death in Relation to Smoking. “The death rate of the heavy smokers is approximately twenty times the death rate of the non-smokers” This study demonstrates “clear associations between the mortality from lung cancer and the smoking of cigarettes”.
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“British Report Links Smoking, Lung Cancer”,
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1957- Dr. David D. Rutstein, M.D., Head of the Preventive Medicine Department at the Harvard Medical School, The Atlantic Monthly, An Open Letter to Dr. Clarence Cook Little, October 1957, pp. 41-43. “Is there tangible evidence of a relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer? Eighteen studies conducted in five countries have shown that there is…” Published again in 1958 in CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, (1958 Mar-Apr) Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 46-8.
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1957- Dr. Oscar Auerbach, M.D., Dr. J. Brewster Gere, M.D., Dr. Jerome B. Forman, M.D., Dr. Thomas G. Petrick, M.D., Dr. Harold J. Smolin, Ph.D., Dr. Gerald E. Muehsam, M.D., Dr. Dicran Y. Kassouny, M.D., and Dr. Arthur Purdy Stout, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine January 17, 1957 Vol. 256 No. 3, pages 97-104. Changes in the Bronchial Epithelium in Relation to Smoking and Cancer of the Lung — A Report of Progress. “These findings are fully consistent with the hypothesis that inhalants of one sort or another are important factors in the causation of bronchogenic carcinoma. The findings are also fully consistent with the theory that cigarette smoking is an important factor in the causation of bronchogenic carcinoma.(Page 104)
Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1957- March 9, Health Council of Holland
“…it has often been stated that heavy smoking, particularly of cigarettes, promotes the genesis of lung cancer…there are no counter arguments against the assumption of such a relationship.”
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1957- June 29, Medical Research Council of Great Britain
The Medical Research Council concludes in its statement regarding “Tobacco Smoking And Cancer Of The Lung” that: “Evidence from many investigations in different countries indicates that a major part of the increase is associated with tobacco smoking, particularly in the form of cigarettes. In the opinion of the Council, the most reasonable interpretation of this evidence is that the relationship is one of direct cause and effect.”
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1957- The U.S. Surgeon General, Dr. Leroy E. Burney, M.D., issued a warning that “… there is increasing evidence that excessive smoking is one of the causative factors in lung cancer.” U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Press release. 12 Jul, 1957. Government Admission- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1957- Senator Wallace F. Bennett (R-Utah) introduces a bill requiring cigarette packs carry the label, “Warning: Prolonged use of this product may result in cancer, in lung, heart and circulatory ailments, and in other diseases.” Unfortunately this would not occur until the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1966 was passed, that “the public may be adequately informed about any adverse health effects of cigarette smoking by inclusion of warning notices on each package of cigarettes and in each advertisement of cigarettes.”
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1957- Lorillard quietly stopped doing business with H&V Specialties Co., Inc., the supplier of crocidolite asbestos for the Kent Micronite filters. The parent company, Hollingsworth & Vose Co. shuttered H&V Specialties Co., Inc., later that year. Peter Breymeier, a former chemist with Hollingsworth, said he understood that Lorillard “got cold feet about the asbestos. . . . My grapevine information is they got worried about the consuming public finding out about the asbestos and raising hell with them.”
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*1991- Deposition of Dr. Harold W. Knudson in the case of Alfred and Angelina Grieff vs. Lorillard et al. Dr. Knudson, former vice president and research director of Hollingsworth & Vose designed the Micronite filter for Kent cigarettes. Deposition includes testimony about the use of asbestos in the Micronite filter in the 1950s and business relations between Lorillard and Hollingsworth & Vose that produced asbestos materials for the filter.

Numerous Lorillard employees developed mesothelioma as a result of manufacturing Kent cigarettes.
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1957- Study Group on Smoking & Health, Science Magazine, June 1957.
(American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, National Cancer Institute, National Heart Institute“At least 16 Independent studies carried on In five countries during the past 18 years have shown that there Is a statisticalassociation between smoking and the occurrence of lung cancer…The sum total of scientific evidence establishes beyond reasonable doubt that cigarette smoking is a causative factor in the rapidly increasing incidence of human epidermoid carcinoma of the lung.”
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1958- Dr. E. Cuyler Hammond, Sc.D., and Dr. Daniel Horn, Ph.D., Journal of the American Medical Association, SMOKING AND DEATH RATES—REPORT ON FORTY-FOUR MONTHS OF FOLLOW-UP OF 187,783 MEN, March 15, 1958, Vol 166, No. 11: pages 1294-1308. “There is a high degree of association between total death rates and cigarette smoking…” “an extremely high association for a few diseases, such as cancer of the lung, cancer of the larynx, cancer of the esophagus, and gastric ulcers…” Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1958-SMOKING GUN- “REPORT ON VISIT TO U.S.A. AND CANADA,” 17th of April to 12th May 1958, by H. R. Bentley, D. G. I. Felton, and W. W. Reid, produced by B.A.T. Company, Ltd. 3 British-American Tobacco Co. scientists, after visiting the United States and discussing smoking research with 35 tobacco industry scientists and officials, write: “With one exception (H.S.N. Greene), the individuals whom we met believed that smoking causes lung cancer if by ‘causation’ we mean any chain of events which leads finally to lung cancer and which involves smoking as an indispensable link. In the U.S.A. only Berkson, apparently, is now prepared to doubt the statistical evidence and his reasoning is nowhere thought to be sound.”
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1958- May 12, The Research Council of Sweden
“…it is the view of the Council that collective completed investigations indicate that substances in tobacco smoke constitute, in all probability, an essential factor in the occurrance of certain types of lung cancer.”
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1958- June 30, International Union Against Cancer
“Epidemiological evidence from many countries shows that cigarette smoking is one of the factors causally associated with the increase in lung cancer.”
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1958- August 22, New York State Commissioner of Health
“There is now no reasonable doubt on the part of authoritative health agencies concerned with cancer that the use of tobacco acts in some way to increase the chances of developing lung cancer to a significant degree.”
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1958- Anti-Cancer Campaign Committee, University of Adelaide, Australia
“The fact that a direct relationship between heavy smoking and the incidence of lung cancer has now been established beyond all reasonable doubt.”
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1959- New York State Department of Health
“The evidence indicates that persons who smoke cigarettes increase their chances of developing lung cancer. There is no evidence to contradict this conclusion.”
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1959- June 1, California State Department of Public Health
“… the evidence both from our own research and that of others has become conclusive that cigarette smoking is an important causative factor in lung cancer.” As well as, “the weight of evidence with regard to cigarette smoking as a cause of lung cancer is now so great that the Department must bring the matter to the attention of the public.”
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1959- October 21, American Public Health Association
“Lung Cancer and Cigarette Smoking”, they state, “…scientific evidence has established that excessive cigarette smoking is a major factor in the disease…”
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1959- Dr. Leroy E. Burney, M.D., U.S. Surgeon General, Journal of the American Medical Association, Smoking and lung Cancer, A statement of the public health service. November 28, 1959, Vol 171, No. 13: pages 1829-1837. “The weight of evidence at present implicates smoking as the principal etiological factor in the increased incidence of lung cancer”.(p. 1835) He continues, “Cigarette smoking particularly is associated with an increased chance of developing lung cancer.”(p. 1836). Government Admission-Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1959- Dr. John H. Talbott, M.D., Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Smoking and lung Cancer, December 12, 1959, Vol 171, No. 15: page 2104. The JAMA rejects the Surgeon General’s assertions that were printed in its’ own journal 2 weeks prior. It is embarrasing that even as late as 1959, that the JAMA was still on the wrong side of the smoking issue. Medical Journal- Scientific Method- Peer Reviewed
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1959- United Nations’ World Health Organization appointed a Study Group on the epidemiology of Lung Cancer, which came to the unanimous conclusion in the 1960 report, Epidemiology of Cancer of the Lung, “…that there was no reason to modify the conclusions reached by a number of official, voluntary and other scientific bodies that the sum total of the evidence available today was most reasonably interpreted as indicating that cigarette smoking is a major causative factor in the increasing incidence of human carcinoma (cancer) of the lung.”
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1959- Dr. Alton Ochsner, M.D., in The Instructor magazine article Tobacco and Cancer of the Lung, writes, “I have yet to see the physician who will not admit there is a causal relationship except two. They are individuals who are in the employ of a tobacco company.”
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1960-SMOKING GUN- A SECRET internal American Tobacco Company document references the American Medical Association’s Stand on the Cigarette Smokine-Lung Cancer Controversy. It discusses an A.M.A. Board of trustees meeting with Dr. Harvey Haag, M.D., a senior member of the American Medical Association Council on drugs and a long-time American Tobacco consultant.This document CLEARLY shows the collusion between A.M.A. personnel and Big tobacco to obscure the smoking-cancer link.
“This situation reenforces Dr . Haag’s opinion that we obtain a well known and recognized influential physician to replace him at his retirement since Harvey’s presence on the council probably was the most important factor in preventing any action by the AMA.”
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1960- Canadian Public Health Association
“WHEREAS there is a considerable body of statistical evidence that the use of cigarettes is a hazard to health…”
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1960- January 21, American Cancer Society, Inc.
“…many studies which have been reported in recent years indicates beyond reasonable doubt that cigarette smoking is the major cause of the unprecedented increase in lung cancer.”
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1960- February 27, National Tuberculosis Association
“The National Tuberculosis Association warns all persons that: there is an alarming increase in deaths from lung cancer — cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer — the risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked. Giving up smoking reduces the risk of lung cancer .”
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1960- March 22, Finnish Medical Association
Issued a resolution concerning the injurious effect of tobacco on the respiratory tract, with special reference to lung cancer.
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1960- June 10, Canadian Cancer Society
“The Grand Council approved the adoption of a programme of education of the public about the relationship between lung cancer and smoking…”
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1960- August, Joint Tuberculosis Council of Great Britain
“Cigarette smoking is the major factor accounting for the increased incidence of cancer of the lung…”
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1960- September, Michigan State Medical Society
“…23-studies in eight countries have shown that lung cancer patients are predominantly cigarette smokers…”
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1960- September, Utah State Medical Association
“…there is mounting evidence incriminating tobacco as a carcinogenic agent…”
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1960 Flintstones Winston Commercial.

 

1961- March, The Department of Health For Scotland
“The association of cancer of the lung with smoking- particularly cigarette smoking – is not within reasonable doubt. The strong circumstantial evidence was summarized by the Medical Research Council in 1957 : the Council concluded that the most reasonable interpretation of the evidence was one of cause and effect, and this view has not been seriously challenged since.”
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1961- December 13, New York Post “British Report Links Cancer And Smoking”
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1961- December 23, THE ECONOMIST
In regards to the Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year 1960.
“no one…after reading this report can seriously maintain that smoking is not an important cause of cancer.”
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1962- British Royal College of Physicians of London: Smoking and Health, page S7, “Cigarette smoking is a cause of lung cancer…”
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1962- March 3, American Academy of General Practice, Maine Chapter
“BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That this group of physicians desires to encourage the dissemination of information regarding an apparent causal relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.”
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1962- March 7, Joint Committee of the Danish National Health Service, Danish Cancer Society and the Danish Medical Association.
“The Joint Committee, having studied available results of experiments and investigations, and a number of reviews, is convinced that the original clinical observations of an association between the smoking of tobacco, particularly cigarettes, and bronchial carcinoma has been statisticaliy verified. The Committee is of the opinion that the association is causal in nature.”
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1962- April, Dominion Council of Health of Canada
“Overwhelming evidence shows a direct relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.”
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1962- April 8, Maine Medical Association
“WHEREAS, there is mounting evidence of a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer…”
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1962- April 27, The American College Health Association
“A preponderance of scientific evidence (with scant counter evidence) indicates an association relationship and suggests a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and some diseases…”
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1962- May 9, Vermont State Medical Society
“WHEREAS, the weight of scientific evidence implicates cigarette smoking as one of the principal causative factors in lung cancer and a contributing factor in cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases…”
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1962- May 19, The Canadian Medical Association
“The weight of evidence at present implicates cigarette smoking as the principal causative factor in the increased incidence of lung cancer.”
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1962- June 22, American College of Chest Physicians
“WHEREAS, the weight of scientific evidence distinctly indicates that cigarette smoking and the inhalation of other atmospheric pollutants have an association relationship which strongly suggests a cause and effect connection with chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, cor pulmonale, cardiovascular disease and cancer of the lung…”
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1962- September 17, Surgeon General – United States Air Force
“The ever-increasing evidence linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer, pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases, etc can no longer be ignored.”
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1962- September 28, New Brunswick Medical Society
“Whereas it has been scientifically demonstrated and accepted by recognized authorities that there is a connection between smoking and an increasing incidence of fatal diseases of the chest, heart and arterial systems, be it Resolved that the New Brunswick Society goes on record as recommending to the people of this Province that smoking in any form is a dangerous habit.”
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1962- October 13, Pennsylvania Medical Society
“WHEREAS, the preponderance of the evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is implicated in the genesis of lung cancer and probably other diseases…”
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1962- October 20, National Cancer Institute of Canada
“…cigarette smoking is an important factor in the causation of lung cancer and is largely responsible for the dramatic and continuing increase in recorded lung cancer death rates.”
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1962- November 9, Hawaii Public Health Association
“WHEREAS, numerous studies conducted by the American Cancer Society, and independent researchers in the United States and in other countries have pointed out a link between heavy cigaret smoking and many human diseases, including cancer of the mouth and lungs…”
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1962- Wall Street Journal, “AMA Shuns Stand on Cigaret-Health Issue; Promises Report on Subject in Year or So”
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Even by 1962 the AMA still refused to state the obvious.

1963- World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Cancer Control, Cancer Control: First Report of an Expert Committee, Technical Report Series No. 251, page 5, 1963.
“The relationship between cigarette smoking and the rapidly increasing incidence of cancer of the lung is well known.”
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1963- February 6, Massachusetts Medical Society
“…there is considerable scientific evidence to indicate that excessive tobacco smoking, particularly cigarettes, enhances the chance of certain chest diseases developing…particularly lung cancer…”
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1963- February 23, Saskatchewan Cancer Commission
“The evidence linking cigarette smoking with the subsequent development of lung cancer is conclusive.”
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1963- March 27, California Medical Association
“RESOLVED : That the California Medical Association take steps on a statewide basis to publicize, particularly in schools and homes, the harmful effects of cigaret smoking.”
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1963- April, Oregon State Board of Health
“WHEREAS, a preponderance of clinical and other scientific evidence indicates an adverse relationship between cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart and circulatory diseases, asthma, and cancer of the lungs, mouth, and throat…”
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1963- April 10, American Association For Thoracic Surgery
“…the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma is proportionate to the incidence and amount of cigarette smoking…”
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1963- April 24, New Mexico Medical Society
“…it is now reasonably established that there exists a correlation between the use of tobacco and the incidence of cancer of the lung…”
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1963- April 28, Texas Medical Association
“WHEREAS, it is becoming increasingly evident that illness and disease are at times caused by or in other instances aggravated by the smoking of tobacco…”
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1963- May 3, Hawaii Medical Association
“WHEREAS, there is mounting evidence of a direct causal relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer…”
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1963- May 5, North Dakota State Medical Association
“WHEREAS, there is increasing evidence to show that smoking, particularly the inhalation of tobacco smoke, has a harmful effect on the health of our people…”
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1963- May 11, Pacific Northwest Radiological Society
“Recognizing the increasing incidence of lung cancer and emphysema…beyond reasonable doubt, cigarette smoking is an important causative factor in these diseases.”
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1963- May 14, Canadian Heart Association
“While coronary heart disease is common in non-smokers, cigarette smokers suffer three times the incidence and death rate from this disease…”
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1963- May 17, Medical Society of the State of New York
“WHEREAS, the preponderance of the evidence indicates that cigaret smoking is implicated in the genesis of lung cancer and other diseases…”
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1963- May 19, Florida Medical Association
“WHEREAS, The preponderence of the evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is implicated in the genesis of lung cancer…”
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1963- May 27, District of Columbia Medical Society
“WHEREAS, The preponderence of the evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is implicated in the genesis of lung cancer and probably other diseases…”
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1963- June, American Heart Association
“…there is sufficient evidence of the harmful effects of cigarette smoking…[including]…the relationship to carcinoma of the lung.”
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1963- June, International Council of Women, Committee on Health
“Concerned by the evidence which shows that in recent years there has been a progressive increase in cancer of the lung…the preponderance of all scientific evidence indicates that smoking of tobacco, especially cigarettes, is strongly indicated as the cause of this increase…”
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1963- June 7, Canadian Thoracic Society, Canadian Tuberculosis Association
“…the Canadian Thoracic Society places itself on record as condemning the inhalation of tobacco tar products as detrimental to the general health and welfare of the Canadian people and also incriminating this habit as one of the causative factors of carcinoma of the lung.”
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1963- June 9, South Dakota State Medical Association
“The South Dakota State Medical Association endorses the position of the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society on the effects of tobacco on the human body…”
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1963- June 12, The Canadian Medical Association, Committee on Cancer
“The scientific evidence underlying the relationship of cigarette smoking and lung cancer was reviewed and this relationship was accepted as firmly established.”
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1963- June 17, Minister of National Health and Welfare, Department of National Health and Welfare of Canada, “There is scientific evidence that cigarette smoking is a contributory cause of lung cancer…”
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1963- June 27, Idaho State Medical Association
“…a direct relationship exists between the use of cigarettes and the incidence of lung cancer…”
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1963- July 19, California State Board of Health
“The risk of dying from lung cancer is 14 times as high among cigarette smokers as among non-cigarette smokers, and 26 times higher for those who smoke two or more packs a day.”
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1963- September 13, Colorado Medical Society, Committee On Pulmonary Diseases
“The committee suggests that the Colorado Medical Society take a positive position that the inhaling of tobacco smoke, especially from cigarettes, is harmful to human health.”
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1963- September 17, Washinpton State Medical Association
“BE IT RESOLVED that the Washington State Medical Association: (i) Affirm all efforts to educate our citizens and particularly our youth as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking…”
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1963- September 24, Ohio State Dental Association
“The relationship of chewing and smoking tobacco to the genesis of cancer of the oral region has long been recognized. Scientific evidence now strongly indicates that cigarette smoking is directly related to the incidence of cancer of the lung…”
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1963– October 9, Massachusetts Medical Society
“Whereas, scientific evidence strongly indicates a relationship between cigarette smoking and such disorders as chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, cardiovascular diseases and cancer of the lung…”
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1963- October 13, Medical Society of Delaware
“Be it resolved, That the Medical Society of Delaware go on record to the effect that smoking can be a hazard to health.”
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1963- November, Government of British Columbia
“The Government of Britih Columbia, in recognition of the health risks associated with the use of tobacco, particularly cigarettes, recommends that measures employed to curb smoking should be primarily educational in nature.”
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1963- November, Government of British Columbia, Minister of Health Services and Hospital Insurance, “Cigarettes kill just as surely as if one were to take poison. They kill and they maim. Cigarettes are killers. Facts show that lung cancer and cigarette smoking are linked. What more is needed before some sort of action results?”
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1963- November 13, American Public Health Association
“Evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is an important factor in the etiology of squamous carcinoma of the lung…”
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1963- November 20, Government of Manitoba
“The Government of Manitoba accepts as factual the evidence that has been presented by medical and other scientific authorities, of the direct relationship between cigarette smoking and diseases of the lungs and cardiovascular system.”
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1963- November 25, Government of Saskatchewan, Department of Public Health
“The Saskatchewan Department of Public Health believes that the evidence implicating smoking as a causal factor in lung cancer has now accumulated to a degree sufficient to warrant authorities adopting the relationship as a working principle.”
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1963- December 11, Connecticut State Medical Society
“…the preponderance of evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is strongly implicated in the genesis of lung cancer…”
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1963- December, Medical Society of New Jersey
“RESOLVED, that The Medical Society of New Jersey call upon the people of New Jersey to recognize the intimate connection between sustained cigarette smoking and lung cancer…”
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1963- California Medical Association, Commission on Cancer
“…the Commission feels obligated to affirm that, this growing body of data supports the claim that cigarette smoking and, to a lesser degree, other tobacco products, are serious health hazards…”
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1963- California School Health Association
“WHEREAS, a review of the medical evidence and the statistical evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a major health hazard with definite relationship to lung cancer…”
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1963- American Cancer Society, Inc.
“More than 25 scientific studies in ten countries have shown that-there is a high degree of relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer and that the risk of developing lung cancer is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked.”
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1963- New Jersey State Department of Health
“There is a great deal of evidence to show that cigarette smoking is associated with increased incidence to lung cancer…”
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1963- Canadian Public Health Association
“WHEREAS the Canadian Public Health Association accepts the evidence that cigarette smoking is a major and the most readily controllable cause of lung cancer…”
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1963- December 4, the House of Delegates of the American Medical Association approved the proposal of its Board of Trustees to initiate significant tobacco research as part of the A.M.A. Education and Research Foundation. $500,000 was authorized for this purpose.

The Board emphasized that contributions will be accepted “only if they are given without restrictions.”

“A director for this project,” the Board said, “will be procured whose experience, qualifications and integrity will assure that such a research project will be conducted effectively, exhaustively and with complete objectivity.
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They appointed Dr. Maurice H. Seevers, M.D., Ph.D., U of M Prof. of Pharmacology, Expert on Addictive substances, Advisor to the Surgeon General for the Committee on Smoking and Health,

A PAID TOBACCO COMPANY CONSULTANT!

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1964- January 11, Dr. Luther L. Terry, M.D., Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service, released the first report of the Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health, which the *American Medical Association refused to endorse.*Death By Medicine by Gary Null PhD, page 15
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On the basis of more than 7,000 articles relating to smoking and disease already available at that time in the biomedical literature, the Advisory Committee concluded that cigarette smoking is—

“A cause of lung cancer and laryngeal cancer in men”
“A probable cause of lung cancer in women”

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1964- January 11, in a strange coincidence, on the very same day as the Surgeon General report, an offer of cooperation was made by the Tobacco Industry Research Committee to the American Medical Association.
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The American Medical Association (AMA) was still complicit in suppressing results of tobacco research. In 1964, the Surgeon General’s report condemned smoking, however the AMA refused to endorse it… it was a non endorsement.
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1964- January, State Health Commissioner Michigan Department of Health
“…the mounting weight of evidence should convince even the most skeptical that cigarette smoking is a real danger to health as well as life.”
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1964- January 18, Federal Trade Commission announced initiation of proceeding of regulations in advertising and labeling of cigarettes . Public hearing scheduled for March 16, 1964 .
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1964- February, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, New York State Department of Health “The risk of lung cancer increases as the number of cigarettes smoked per day increases.”
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The tobacco industry then struck a significant deal with the AMA, by which the nation‘s foremost professional medical association would remain virtually silent on tobacco in exchange for the tobacco industry‘s support in opposing Medicaid and Medicare. The coup was successful for most of the next decade.

Historians have noted that AMA’s position on smoking during the 1960s and 1970s was influenced by its need for support from congressional allies, particularly in southern tobacco-growing states, for opposing Medicare and proposed national health insurance legislation during those years (Kluger 1996; Rothstein 2003; Proctor 2012).

Kluger R. Ashes to Ashes: America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
Rothstein WG. Public Health and the Risk Factor: A History of an Uneven Medical Revolution. Rochester (NY):
University of Rochester Press, 2003.
Proctor RN. Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition. Berkeley (CA):
University of California Press, 2012.

1964- February 8 – New York Times, Tobacco Companies give A.M.A. $10 Million for Smoking Study.

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Even a former editor from the Journal of the American Medical Association knows what the $10,000,000 was for…

Dr. Alan Blum, M.D., former editor at the Journal of the American Medical Association says flatly that the money the Big Six tobacco companies gave the AMA “was a grant to buy off the complacency and, more importantly, the silence of the AMA for 14 years.”
C. Kenney, The Boston Globe Magazine, “The Antismoking Guerillas” (May 4, 1986)
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Only 3 weeks later, the A.M.A. comes to the defense of their long time benefactor, big tobacco…

1964- February 28 – The American Medical Association supports the tobacco industry’s objection to labeling cigarettes as a public health hazard, in a letter to the Federal Trade Commission, “With respect to cigarettes, cautionary labeling cannot be anticipated to serve the public interest with any particular degree of success…More than 90 million persons in the United States use tobacco in some form, and, of these 72 million use cigarets… the economic lives of tobacco growers, processors, and merchants are entwined in the industry; and local, state, and the federal governments are recipients of and dependent upon many millions of dollars of tax revenue.“
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March 16, 1964- The Federal Trade Commission began hearings on its proposal to require health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertising.
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1964- March 19, Rep. Frank Thompson Jr. (D-NJ) charges that the American Medical Association has entered into a deal with tobacco-state congressmen to gain their votes against Medicare.
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1964- May, The AMA published an educational leaflet titled: Smoking: Facts you Should Know.
It noted smoking as a “threat to life.” Why? Because “numerous deaths occur each year from burns and suffocation due to falling asleep while smoking.” Under the heading, “Suspected Health Hazards,” the AMA flyer concluded that according to some researchers, cigarette smoking “shortens life expectancy” and is “alleged to cause cancer of the lungs and bladder.” But the leaflet went on to assure us, “Some equally competent physicians and research personnel are less sure of the effect of cigarette smoking on health.”

“Smoke if you feel you should, but be moderate.” -AMA 1964

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1964- June 23, House Commerce Committee began hearings on 10 bills related to the advertising and labeling of cigarettes.
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1964- June 23, Associated Press releases states, “FTC PLANS RULE SHORTLY ON CIGARET HAZARD LABELLING”.
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June 24, 1964 was a very busy day in tobacco history.

1964- June 24, The FTC rules that cigarettes will have to carry a warning label, effective Jan. 1, 1965. A corollary order requiring similar warnings in cigarette advertisements will be effective July 1, 1965. They will be required to state “clearly and prominently” that cigarette smoking “may cause death from cancer and other diseases.”
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Wall Street Journal “FTC Requires Cigaret Labels, Ads to Warn Smoking May Cause Death”
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New York Times “New York Times U.S. TO REQUIRE HEALTH WARNING FOR CIGARETTES
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Sentinel “Cigarettes Must Carry Warning Tag FTC Says”
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1964- June 24, In yet another incredible coincidence, the AMA House of Delegates just happened to be meeting on the very same day. After the FTC announcement was sent across the news wires, the AMA was practically forced to make a statement that was referred to as “a policy not firm enough to be called vigorous and not soft enough to be called evasive” about cigarette smoking. Despite numerous state delegations submitting resolutions for a “causal relationship” for the cigarette smoking and lung cancer connection, the official statement was that the AMA “is on record and does recognize a significant relationship between cigaret smoking and the incidence of lung cancer and certain other diseases, and that cigaret smoking is a serious health hazard.”
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In spite of the mild rhetoric (which was only in 2 small paragraphs in the July 6, 1964 JAMA) the AMA subsequently, remained hushed against tobacco in the wake of the Surgeon General’s report which they still didn’t endorse.
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“The AMA recognizes the contribution of the Surgeon General’s Committee in its comprehensive report.” (This is neither an endorsement or a commendation)
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Even the Wall Street Journal noticed the weak rhetoric, “Group Stops Short of Saying Cigarets Are Cancer Cause”. Noting that “the organization didn’t flatly say that smoking causes lung cancer or other diseases.”
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AMA House of Delegates adopted a resolution calling cigarette smoking a serious health hazard.

1964- October 01, British American Tobacco meeting with Dr. Maurice Seevers of the A.M.A. Regarding various topics including the tobacco study grants.
Bates Number: 105610974-105610978
“They have refused to fund anti-smoking clinics or education.”
“Seevers does not believe that it has been proved that smoking causes lung cancer.”
“Seevers is convinced the main reason why people smoke is the nicotine. He thinks it important to keep the nicotine content up. He has suggested to Hanvor of the American Tobacco Co. that they should add back nicotine to the cut tobacco…”
In regard to the Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee
“Seevers said that it was a Committee of prima donnas.”
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1965- Tobacco and Health Committee
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1967- It’s no suprise that with Dr. Seevers connections to Big Tobacco, that this 1967 AMA press release basically endorsed the tobacco industry‘s ―open mind stance with regard to causality:

“For the past three years, wide ranging research into many questions at this level has been sponsored by the Project for Research on Tobacco and Health of the American Medical Association
– Education and Research Foundation. But direct and incontrovertible evidence for a cause and effect relationship between smoking and disease – including cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular disease -is difficult to obtain. The answers are still years away…”I believe very few, if any, of the scientists working under this program would advise anyone to smoke. Still we hope that in search for facts, we can retain an open mind.”
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1968- The lack of real answers from the AMA are echoed in the 1968 report “Smoking and Health.”
“The AMA-ERF Committee recognizes that incontrovertible answers are not in sight. But the effort must continue…”
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The A.M.A. eventually bilked $15,005,000 from the tobacco companies between 1964-1971.

Tobacco research fund 1
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Tobacco research fund 2
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The following bates document # 681879254-681879715 tells how they spent it.
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“In late 1963, shortly before the first Surgeon General’s Report was issued, the industry and AMA agreed to fund research concerning smoking and health. Plaintiffs will argue that this was intended to silence the AMA’s voice in the smoking and health area, to obtain the AMA’s support in opposing the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, and to reassure the smoking public and mollify Congress that the AMA was studying the problem of smoking and health.

In fact, the AMA frittered away the money. The industry’s scientific directors and others at the individual tobacco companies criticized the AMA research on the basis “not more than 50 percent of the program, was relevant to smoking,’ with “only 2 percent… allotted to carcinogenesis.” Moreover, approximately one-half of the grant money has been allotted to the five universities with which the committee members are directly associated.
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1969- Consultantship Agreement
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1969- Research Department and Dr . Fishbien
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1971- September 3, the AMA was well aware of the upcoming adoption of the National Cancer Act of 1971, and was looking to extricate itself from their Big Tobacco relationship. Dr. Ernest B. Howard M.D., the AMA’s executive vice president and the AMA Public Relations director, Frank Campion advised the Tobacco Institute in a secret meeting that:

“Howard said he regards the program as a great liability—that from AMA’s view it has only caused further blackening of AMA’s image. He said from the industry’s standpoint the research has produced no evidence to clear cigarettes from the generally accepted conclusion that they cause “lung carcinoma” and other maladies.”

“He is most anxious to avoid any incident which will create displeasure with AMA among tobacco area Congressmen–he said AMA needs their support urgently.”

“He is told that 85% of the ERF research with tobacco funds has been “useful basic research” but that through neglect by all concerned no effort has really been made to impress anyone in or out of AMA with this.”
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1972- Historical Fishbein termination
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FINALLY, in 1978, after 14 years of virtual silence, the A.M.A. Education and Research Foundation released the long awaited 365-page report, “Tobacco and Health”. One major conclusion was: “cigarette smoking plays an important role” in the development of chronic lung disease.
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It wasn’t until the 1980’s that the AMA took a firmer stance with Big Tobacco when in February 1986, the American Medical Association proposed that the federal government ban all advertising and other promotion of cigarettes. It wasn’t until the 1990’s that the relationship became adversarial.

1989- Factory workers dying of Mesothelioma
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The medical conspiracy continues today

Just as private industry and the American Medical Association conspired to deceive the public on tobacco (and thereby profit from the public’s ignorance of tobacco’s extreme health hazard), the same story is repeating itself today in the cancer and pharmaceutical industries. In each case, so-called “authoritative” doctors insist that whatever they’re pushing is safe for human consumption, and that the public should buy their products without any concern about safety.

And yet these industries are much like the tobacco industry in the fact that they primarily seek profits, not health. Medicine today is in the business of making money, and that goal is achieved by selling chemical products to consumers regardless of their safety or efficacy. Big Medicine is the modern version of Big Tobacco, and over the last several decades, the American Medical Association has proudly supported both cigarettes and pharmaceuticals. The AMA is indirectly responsible for the deaths of millions of Americans — not just from pushing cigarettes but also for continuing to push dangerous pharmaceuticals while discrediting nearly everything in natural medicine or alternative medicine. The AMA is a truly despicable organization, in my opinion, that has directly and knowingly contributed to the suffering and death of Americans for more than 80 years.

The cancer industry, similarly, is extremely dangerous to the health and safety of people thanks to its outright refusal to support anti-cancer nutrition as well as its refusal to fight for the removal of toxic chemicals from consumer products and the workplace.

In studying the history of product commercialization by medical groups, what we consistently find is a series of cons perpetrated against consumers, masterminded by profit-seeing medical groups that conspire with corporations to maximize profits at the expense of public health. Nothing has changed today, either. The AMA isn’t pushing cigarettes anymore, it’s pushing deadly pharmaceuticals that will one day be regarded as just as senseless as smoking. Nobody intelligent today actually believes that pharmaceuticals help people heal. In fact, the more drugs people take, the worse their health becomes!

Medical science is slow to change, and slow to give up its closely-guarded (false) beliefs. In time, however, virtually everything now supported by the medical industry (the FDA, AMA, ACS, etc.) will be regarded as insanely harmful to human health. One day, future scientists will look back on medicine today and wonder just how such an industry of evil and greed could have gained so much power and authority. The answer is found in “groupthink” and the strange knack for humans to defer to anyone in an apparent position of authority, regardless of whether such authority is warranted. Just look at Germany in the 1930’s for reference.

medical-journals-are-basically-just-advertisements-nowMedical Journals are basically just advertisements now

medical-journals-are-stooges-for-big-pharmaMedical Journals are stooges for Big Pharma

how-the-us-government-killed-a-cancer-cureHow the US Government killed a cancer cure

bates_92377751-7756a_chunk_1_512kbBates 92377751-7756A Tobacco Testimony

bates_92377751-7756c_chunk_1_512kbBates 92377751-7756C Tobacco Testimony

environmental-cancer-causationEnvironmental Cancer Causation

healing-cancer-from-inside-out-fullHealing Cancer from Inside Out

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