A typical cancerous tumor contains millions or even billions of cells harboring genetic mutations driving them to grow, divide, and invade the local tissue in which they’re embedded. However, as the cells proliferate, they don’t all stay in the neighborhood. Some cells slough off the edges of a tumor and are swept away by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These so-called circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can remain loose in circulation, cluster together as they travel, or lodge themselves in new tissues. Whatever their path, their common origin means that CTCs hold information about a tumor, information that researchers think could be key to cancer diagnosis or treatment.

tumor-sizesCancer patients have only between 5 and 50 CTCs per teaspoon of blood, so their presence is dwarfed by blood cells. However, in the past decade emerging technologies have, for the first time, allowed the isolation of CTCs from patients’ blood samples. Some methods, among the first established, rely on the cells’ physical properties. When a blood sample settles or is spun in a centrifuge, red blood cells, white blood cells, and other components of blood separate into layers. Based on their buoyancy, CTCs can be found in the white blood cell fraction. Then, because CTCs are generally larger than white blood cells, a size-based filter can divide the cell types.


  • Everyone with cancer has CTCs!
  • CTCs are NOT yet rapidly replicating
  • Therefore CTCs are NOT killed by chemotherapy or surgery
  • CTCs are ONLY kept dormant by a healthy immune system
  • Chemotherapy and radiation greatly inhibit the immune system
  • Therefore Chemotherapy and radiation greatly increase metastatic risk


CTCs Discovery

In 1869, pathologist Thomas Ashworth noticed some unusual cells in the blood of a patient who had died of cancer. The cells didn’t look like normal blood cells; instead, they were similar in appearance to those found in the numerous solid tumors present all over the patient’s body. Ashworth speculated that perhaps the cells were derived from the existing tumors, and could help explain the distribution of the patient’s multiple lesions (Australian Med J, 14:146-49, 1869).

Scientists now believe that these so-called circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a key role in metastasis. Because CTCs can be obtained through routine blood draws—a procedure that is much easier and less invasive than a tumor biopsy, making it amenable to repetition—many scientists are hopeful that the cells could be used to detect cancer and metastases at an early stage. CTCs could also help doctors plot the molecular signature of an individual’s tumor over time, monitor a tumor’s responsiveness to therapy, and identify targets for the development of personalized therapies.

Why they are IGNORED by standard Oncology

However, pharmaceutical research is driven by money. Since the main medical cancer therapies (chemotherapy, radiation and surgery) do NOT kill CTCs, the chance of cancer metastasis following chemo, radiation and surgery greatly increases!


Let’s think about it – standard oncology makes their money selling therapies that may kill cancer cells but actually protect circulating tumor cells, setting the patient up for cancer to “come back with a vengeance” within a short period of time. Addressing CTCs may greatly disrupt money flow from standard therapies!

A recent University of Michigan study stated that, “This study confirms the prognostic significance of CTCs in patients with MBC receiving first-line chemotherapy. For patients with persistently increased CTCs after 21 days of first-line chemotherapy, early switching to an alternate cytotoxic therapy was not effective in prolonging OS. For this population, there is a need for more effective treatment than standard chemotherapy.” They suggest that for many cancer patients, there is even an INCREASE in CTCs following chemotherapy! For these the study goes on to suggest that there may be a “need for more effective treatment than standard chemotherapy.”

CTCs and their role in malignant disease:

Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) sparked scientific interest over fifty years ago and their detection and analysis is proving to be an invaluable tool in the individualisation of cancer diagnosis and treatment [3].

It is very well established that Circulating Tumour Cells are absolutely essential for the establishment of metastases: they function as the single haematological route of malignant neoplasias and metastases cannot occur without them [1]. In fact, ‘metastatic insufficiency’ is officially defined as the elimination of CTCs [4]. Regardless of their critical role in the metastatic cascade and despite the need for their detection and analysis as a widespread tool used in cancer management [5,6,7], a definition of CTCs has yet to enter a medical dictionary.

CTCs are a subpopulation of tumour cells derived from the primary cancer site that have:

  • Detached from the primary tumour mass [8]
  • Adopted genetic mutations that enabled migration through the basement membrane (if the tumour is of epithelial origin) and the extracellular matrix [4,9]
  • Dedifferentiated or undergone Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (carcinoma derived cells only) [1,4]
  • Entered into the peripheral blood stream where they circulate as tumour cells with metastatic potential – this is the point at which they are termed ‘Circulating Tumour Cells.’ [1,10]
  • Have the potential to disseminate and proliferate as a metastatic lesion [1,4]
  • Can stimulate angiogenesis [1,10]
  • Have stem-cell like properties (see below) [1,2,11]

Survival of CTCs in the circulation requires evasion of anoikis and of the immune system. There are complex mechanisms present in CTCs that allow for this prevarication to occur [9,12,13]. When the intercellular signalling is appropriate, CTCs extravase from the circulation, disseminate in a tissue foreign to that of the primary lesion, and proliferate in the ‘permissive’ organ [1,3,5,10,14]. This proliferating mass forms a secondary cancer at a site foreign to that of the primary cancer [1].


Stephen Paget’s well-recognised ‘seed and soil’ hypothesis states that metastases exhibit tropism, i.e. the organ site wherein they disseminate and form a secondary tumour is not random [5,14]. The organ site of a metastasis is the ‘soil’ which is absolutely biologically the ideal place for a specific ‘seed’ (CTC) to grow [1]. Both the CTC (seed) and the organ site (soil), which will harbour the metastases, have biomarkers that specifically recognise and interact with each other [1]. Together they facilitate the development of the environment necessary for a metastatic lesion to develop and thrive. [1,3,5,10,14] CTCs have adopted genetic mutations that equip them to respond to local growth factors and stimulate neovascularisation in the microenvironment of the new site. [1,4,5,14]. These biological markers on CTCs may differ entirely from the markers of the bulk of primary cancer cells [1,11].


Understanding the heterogeneous nature of tumour cells is necessary in order to fully appreciate the critical role CTCs play in the formation of metastases [15]. A vast number of the CTC characteristics are yet to be determined, however, it is known that CTCs are likely to have heterogeneous biomarkers to that of the parent tissue and other subpopulations of the primary tumour [1,16]. Common CTC properties that identify them as heterogeneous to other primary cancer cells are their increased invasiveness, their heightened resistance to threat, and their biological likeness to stem or progenitor cells [1,4,6].

The heterogeneous nature of tumour has the following consequences:

  • Classification and morphological analysis of tumour cells from a surgical biopsy may differ to the character of the tumour’s CTCs [1,11].
  • The majority of the cells of the biopsy will not have initiating capacity and therefore may be less relevant in terms of diagnosis and treatment [1].
  • CTCs have the potential to behave totally differently to the original primary cancer cells and respond to entirely different treatments [1,11].

CTCs and Tumour Initiating Cells (TICs)

There is confusing terminology existing in the literature about tumour stem cells. Tumour cells that have progenitor/stem cell characteristics and are responsible for tumour progression are called Tumour Initiating Cells (TICs) [15]. They are known colloquially as ‘Cancer Stem Cells’ (CSCs) [17]

CTCs share similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics with Tumour Initiating Cells (TICs) [1,6]. CTCs have the capacity to self-renew, to divide asymmetrically, for genetic adaptation, and to accumulate mutations [4]. They have the ability to sustain tumour genesis and growth, and to initiate tumours with multiple descendent lines. [2,11,18]. CTCs may circulate as non-proliferating tumour cells, potentiating their resistance to chemotherapy [19,20]. They can transition from this non-proliferating pluripotent-progenitor cell phenotype into a proliferating cell upon dissemination [21].

The similarities that CTCs have to cancer stem cells may explain the eventual relapse of disease in a patient previously considered to be in remission following primary therapy [6,15,22].

The sub-population of neoplastic cells that have stem cell properties are known to:

  • be responsible for tumour progression [15]
  • have unique biomarkers that may correspond to radio- and chemotherapy resistant mechanisms [23]
  • be derived from and regulated by both genetic and epigenetic programs [24]

If therapy is to be targeted toward cells responsible for tumour progression, these epigenetic determinants of mutations need to be considered [24].

Cancer treatments may be unsuccessful if they fail to target the specific minority subpopulation of tumour cells that have capacity for invasion and tumour initiation [15]. These populations are an absolutely essential target for therapy and if metastatic disease is to be prevented. [15,25]

What can CTCs tell us about the patient’s malignancy?

CTCs have a wealth of clinical information in the evaluation of tumour progression, prediction of long term prognosis, identification of patients who are likely to respond to treatment of curative intent, and assessment of likelihood of recurrence.” [4]

The identification and analysis of CTCs is emerging as an essential clinical tool in the diagnosis of malignancy, and in the monitoring of disease progression and effect of cancer treatment [1,3,26,27].

CTC detection and analysis is a valuable tool in the management of cancer because it enables the following information to be realised:


Analysis of CTCs enriched from the peripheral blood of patients with advanced or metastasising cancer represents the real-time biopsy that has been up until this point impossible without surgical intervention [11,18]. Detection of CTCs in the peripheral circulation of cancer patients indicates the presence of metastatic disease [1,4,11]. Due to the ease of sample collection, it is possible to monitor tumour progression and stage, and assist in determining the success of cancer treatment [5]. CTC count in the peripheral blood of a patient is indicative of tumour stage, tumour progression, and success of treatment [1]. The difference in CTC count between two samples, taken prior to and following surgery or cancer therapy, can inform the practitioner of the success of the treatment [5]. CTC count falls significantly with the regressing of disease, and similarly CTC count rises with the advancement of the malignancy [4,5].

The CTC count is indicative of tumour stage [3]. The numerical value which determines how advanced the cancer is will differ across the various types of malignant neoplasias, and their comparative averages have already been determined [4]. For example, more than 5 CTCs per 7.5ml of peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer is considered to be a progressive disease.


The presence of CTCs in the peripheral circulation has been confirmed as an independent prognostic indicator [1,5]. CTC detection is predictive of clinical outcome and overall survival rate in multiple malignancies [1,5]. The prognostic significance of CTCs relates to time to disease progression and prediction of recurrence, even after therapy of curative intent [1,4,14].

CTC detection in the blood may override the standard prognostic indicators [2,4]. Specifically, detection and analysis of CTCs may be a more accurate predictor of clinical outcome in terms of Overall Survival than standard prognostic indicators [2]. Multivariate analysis has shown that CTC count is an independent prognostic indicator irrespective of all other variables [1,5,6].

Due to the similarity between Cancer Stem Cells and CTCs, (i.e. their characteristics of longevity, capacity for tumour initiation, self renewal and proliferative ability), the presence of CTCs at the time of diagnosis and treatment, may explain the eventual relapse of disease in patients who have previously been ‘in remission’ after primary therapy [6].


It is difficult to predict the biological fate of the cancer from biopsies obtained from the primary cancer [28]. A significant number of patients experience metastatic disease following primary therapy due to the treatment’s inability to target the more aggressive metastasising population [3,29] and the metastatic inducing nature of biopsies.

The biological fate of malignancies is determinable through the detection and bio-characterisation of CTCs [18,28].


CTC detection and analysis makes it possible to assess the risk of disease recurrence after therapy of curative intent [1,4]. CTC count in the peripheral circulation before both surgery and chemotherapy or other treatment is the marker that can independently predict the early recurrence in patients with cancer [14]. Novel enrichment and molecular analytic techniques have made it possible to detect metastasising disease that is undetectable using conventional imaging techniques [4].

The detection and isolation of CTCs

Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) are events in the peripheral circulation of cancer patients with malignant disease [7]. They can be reliably detected, isolated, cultured and analysed using immunocytochemical and biomolecular techniques [1,2,7,16].

When used in isolation, each of the available detection methods have their advantages and pitfalls [1]. There is yet to be a standardised CTC- enrichment technique, however, the FDA has approved the Veridex™ (Johnson & Johnson) CellSearch® device for CTC detection in late stage breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer patients only [1,4]. CellSearch® is known for its high specificity, but poor sensitivity [4]. Numerous studies indicate that using a combination of the more recent physical and immunochemical techniques overcomes the disadvantages each method may have when used on their own [1,2,6,7,16].

CTCs either express or, given certain conditions, have the potential to express renegade proteins that are associated with the robustness of malignant tumours [31]. The earlier that cells with tumour initiation capacity are detected and analysed, the sooner an individualised treatment design is possible. [15,32] The identification of both surface and intracellular markers that indicate metastatic progression are they key to detecting the CTCs in the blood.

As yet it is too complex to detect and isolate tumour stem-cells within a tumour mass due to the lack of identifiable stem cell markers [15]. The detection of CTCs however overcomes this problem: their significance lies in their similarity to tumour stem cells, and they are easily isolated from the peripheral circulation [1,3].

Methods of enrichment and gene profiling may involve one or a combination of the following:


  • Centrifugation: isolating CTCs based on their gradient-density [1,4,16]
  • ISET: ‘Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumour cell’ [1,3,4,6,30]
  • Isolation by other morphological characteristics unique to CTCs [4].


• ICE – ‘Immunomagnetic Cell Enrichment’ enriches CTCs via either positive or negative selection. ICE involves antibodies bound to magnetic beads that are selective to CTC markers. Isolating the antibody-selected cell complex from the blood occurs due to exposure to a magnetic field [1,4]. CellSearch® isolates CTCs via positive selection by utilising ICE and histological staining of EPCAM markers [4].


• Reverse Transcriptidase Polymerase Chain Reaction detects genetic mutations in the DNA of CTCs. Primers or probes are designed which base-pair with the specific gene or chromosomal sequence (mutation) of interest, thereby identifying their presence. Multiple sequences (in fact the entire genomic sequence) can be analysed simultaneously [1].


• DNA microarrays enables the identification of genes, determines the active expression of genomic sequences, and detects oncogenic mutations/polymorphisms present in the nucleic acids of any cell [33]. The process makes biochemical calculations of the mRNA that is expressed in cells, hence revealing the cell’s molecular biology. DNA-microarrays can analyse multiple genes simultaneously and have revolutionary diagnostic potential [32,34].


• Flow Cytomertry examines the biomolecular footprint of cells. In a nutshell, a cell is tagged for specific constituents and exposed to a laser beam of light. The presence of proteins and sub-cellular molecules in/on the cell will cause the light to fragment in a pattern that, in turn, identifies their existence. The patterns created by the scattering of light can be detected and analysed [35,36,37,38,39].

The significance of CTCs in terms of diagnosis and treatment

“It is undeniable that CTCs have enormous research potential for individualised medicine in the future.” [3]

Molecular diagnostics hold great promise for individualised diagnosis of cancer [15]. It is possible not only to detect defunct proteins that regulate the cell cycle but also to scan the entire genome of metastasising cells and detect the genes associated with cancer progression prior to them even being transcribed or expressed [2,30]. Molecular technology also allows the detection and testing of resistant or chemosensitive mechanisms existing or dormant within the tumour cell [40]. Such knowledge of the biology of a patient’s cancer allows clinicians to select effective targeted therapies, to monitor the effects of treatment in real-time, and to adapt treatment according to new mutations or protein expression that may have arisen [2,30]. Detection of these mechanisms is highly valuable in effective cancer management [3,18].

A major factor contributing to the possibility of individualised diagnosis through detection and analysis of CTCs is simply the ease of sample collection and accessibility of the cells [3]. Traditionally, clinicians have had to obtain a tissue sample that needs preservation in formalin and fixing in paraffin in order to analyse cancer cells [1]. Analysis of cancer cells isolated from the peripheral circulation overcomes this hassle as well as providing a continuous source of DNA, being free of selection bias, being instantaneous, less expensive and far less invasive than a biopsy surgically removed from a solid tumour [4,15].

Individualised treatment arises from the possibility of assessing treatment efficacy, and monitoring the changing molecular biology of heterogeneous subpopulations of cancer cells [41]. Heterogeneous mutations and protein expression can be detected through highly sensitive methods of analysis of CTCs, deeming CTCs potentially central to the tailoring of cancer therapy [3,4].


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circulating-tumor-cells-primaryCirculating Tumor Cells Primary

circulating-tumor-cells-1950-videoCirculating tumor cells 1950

circulating-tumor-cells-3Circulating Tumor Cells 3

animation-how-cancer-spreads-through-the-bodyANIMATION How cancer spreads through the body


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We reserve the right at any time to modify or discontinue the Service (or any part or content thereof) without notice at any time.

We shall not be liable to you or to any third-party for any modification, change, suspension or discontinuance of the Service.



Any use by you of optional tools offered through the site is entirely at your own risk and discretion and you should ensure that you are familiar with and approve of the terms on which tools are provided by the relevant third-party provider(s).

We may also, in the future, offer new services and/or features through the website (including, the release of new tools and resources). Such new features and/or services shall also be subject to these Terms of Use.



Certain content, products and services available via our Service may include materials from third-parties.

Third-party links on this site may direct you to third-party websites that are not affiliated with us. We are not responsible for examining or evaluating the content or accuracy and we do not warrant and will not have any liability or responsibility for any third-party materials or websites, or for any other materials, products, or services of third-parties.

We are not liable for any harm or damages related to the purchase or use of goods, services, resources, content, or any other transactions made in connection with any third-party websites. Please review carefully the third-party’s policies and practices and make sure you understand them before you engage in any transaction. Complaints, claims, concerns, or questions regarding third-party products should be directed to the third-party.



If, at our request, you send certain specific submissions (for example contest entries) or without a request from us you send creative ideas, suggestions, proposals, plans, or other materials, whether online, by email, by postal mail, or otherwise (collectively, ‘comments’), you agree that we may, at any time, without restriction, edit, copy, publish, distribute, translate and otherwise use in any medium any comments that you forward to us. We are and shall be under no obligation (1) to maintain any comments in confidence; (2) to pay compensation for any comments; or (3) to respond to any comments.

We may, but have no obligation to, monitor, edit or remove content that we determine in our sole discretion are unlawful, offensive, threatening, libelous, defamatory, pornographic, obscene or otherwise objectionable or violates any party’s intellectual property or these Terms of Use.

You agree that your comments will not violate any right of any third-party, including copyright, trademark, privacy, personality or other personal or proprietary right. You further agree that your comments will not contain libelous or otherwise unlawful, abusive or obscene material, or contain any computer virus or other malware that could in any way affect the operation of the Service or any related website. You may not use a false e-mail address, pretend to be someone other than yourself, or otherwise mislead us or third-parties as to the origin of any comments. You are solely responsible for any comments you make and their accuracy. We take no responsibility and assume no liability for any comments posted by you or any third-party.



Occasionally there may be information on our site or in the Service that contains typographical errors, inaccuracies or omissions that may relate to product descriptions, pricing, promotions, offers, product shipping charges, transit times and availability. We reserve the right to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions, and to change or update information or cancel orders if any information in the Service or on any related website is inaccurate at any time without prior notice (including after you have submitted your order).

We undertake no obligation to update, amend or clarify information in the Service or on any related website, including without limitation, pricing information, except as required by law. No specified update or refresh date applied in the Service or on any related website, should be taken to indicate that all information in the Service or on any related website has been modified or updated.



In addition to other prohibitions as set forth in the Terms of Use, you are prohibited from using the site or its content: (a) for any unlawful purpose; (b) to solicit others to perform or participate in any unlawful acts; (c) to violate any international, federal, provincial or state regulations, rules, laws, or local ordinances; (d) to infringe upon or violate our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others; (e) to harass, abuse, insult, harm, defame, slander, disparage, intimidate, or discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, race, age, national origin, or disability; (f) to submit false or misleading information; (g) to upload or transmit viruses or any other type of malicious code that will or may be used in any way that will affect the functionality or operation of the Service or of any related website, other websites, or the Internet; (h) to collect or track the personal information of others; (i) to spam, phish, pharm, pretext, spider, crawl, or scrape; (j) for any obscene or immoral purpose; or (k) to interfere with or circumvent the security features of the Service or any related website, other websites, or the Internet. We reserve the right to terminate your use of the Service or any related website for violating any of the prohibited uses.



We do not guarantee, represent or warrant that your use of our service will be uninterrupted, timely, secure or error-free.

We do not warrant that the results that may be obtained from the use of the service will be accurate or reliable.

You agree that from time to time we may remove the service for indefinite periods of time or cancel the service at any time, without notice to you.

You expressly agree that your use of, or inability to use, the service is at your sole risk. The service and all products and services delivered to you through the service are (except as expressly stated by us) provided ‘as is’ and ‘as available’ for your use, without any representation, warranties or conditions of any kind, either express or implied, including all implied warranties or conditions of merchantability, merchantable quality, fitness for a particular purpose, durability, title, and non-infringement.

In no case shall anyone affiliated with including our directors, officers, employees, affiliates, agents, contractors, interns, suppliers, service providers or licensors be liable for any injury, loss, claim, or any direct, indirect, incidental, punitive, special, or consequential damages of any kind, including, without limitation lost profits, lost revenue, lost savings, loss of data, replacement costs, or any similar damages, whether based in contract, tort (including negligence), strict liability or otherwise, arising from your use of any of the service or any products procured using the service, or for any other claim related in any way to your use of the service or any product, including, but not limited to, any errors or omissions in any content, or any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the service or any content (or product) posted, transmitted, or otherwise made available via the service, even if advised of their possibility. Because some states or jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or the limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages, in such states or jurisdictions, our liability shall be limited to the maximum extent permitted by law.

You understand and agree that no singular individual, group of individuals or entity in any form whatsoever is responsible or liable in any manner for any content generated on, for, or as a result of the existence of this site, since this is a community generated site. You understand and agree that as this is a community generated site, and as a result of this, there is no good way to control what users and contributors post on or through the sites and cannot be responsible for any offensive, inappropriate, obscene, unlawful, infringing or otherwise objectionable or even illegal user generated content you may encounter on the sites or, in connection with your use of the sites.

You understand and agree with the following statement made on behalf of, “We, on behalf of our directors, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, licensors, contributors and service providers, exclude and disclaim liability for any losses and expenses of whatever nature and howsoever arising including, without limitation, any direct, indirect, general, special, punitive, incidental or consequential damages; loss of use: loss of data; loss caused by a virus: loss of income or profit: loss of or damage to property: loss of life: claims of third parties: or other losses of any kind or character, or the inability to use, the site or the content even if we have been advised of the possibility of such damages or losses, arising out of or in connection with the use of this site or any web site with which it is linked.”



You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless and our parent, subsidiaries, affiliates, partners, officers, directors, agents, contractors, licensors, service providers, subcontractors, suppliers, interns and employees, harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, made by any third-party due to or arising out of your breach of these Terms of Use or the documents they incorporate by reference, or your violation of any law or the rights of a third-party.



In the event that any provision of these Terms of Use is determined to be unlawful, void or unenforceable, such provision shall nonetheless be enforceable to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, and the unenforceable portion shall be deemed to be severed from these Terms of Use, such determination shall not affect the validity and enforceability of any other remaining provisions.



The obligations and liabilities of the parties incurred prior to the termination date shall survive the termination of this agreement for all purposes.

These Terms of Use are effective unless and until terminated by us. You may terminate use of the site, but this Terms of Use shall survive in perpetuity.

If in our sole judgment you fail, or we suspect that you have failed, to comply with any term or provision of these Terms of Use, we also may terminate this agreement at any time without notice and you will remain liable for all amounts due up to and including the date of termination; and/or accordingly may deny you access to our Services (or any part thereof).



The information supplied through this website, or by any representative or agent of Dr. Farrah, whether by telephone, in person verbal, email, letter, image, text, facsimile or any other conceivable form of communication, is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical, legal or other professional advice. Health-related information provided through this website is not a substitute for medical advice and should not be used to diagnose or treat health problems or to prescribe any medical devices or other remedies. The receipt of any questions or feedback that you submit in any form to any Dr. Farrah medium does not create a professional relationship and does not create any privacy interests.
You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless and our parent, subsidiaries, affiliates, partners, officers, directors, agents, contractors, licensors, service providers, subcontractors, suppliers, interns and employees, harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, made by any third-party due to or arising out of your breach of these Terms of Service or the documents they incorporate by reference, or your violation of any law or the rights of a third-party.



These Terms of Use and any separate agreements whereby we provide you Services shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Panama.



You can review the most current version of the Terms of Use at any time at this page.

We reserve the right, at our sole discretion, to update, change or replace any part of these Terms of Use by posting updates and changes to our website. It is your responsibility to check our website periodically for changes. Your continued use of or access to our website or the Service following the posting of any changes to these Terms of Use constitutes acceptance of those changes.



Questions about the Terms of Use should be sent to us at

Upon agreeing to these terms and conditions, you gain access to the website and assume total responsibility for any and all actions undertaken by you as a result of your access to the website. You agree and understand that the terms of this agreement shall be binding upon you, your respective heirs, successors, assigns and legal representatives. You understand and agree that all provisions of this Terms of Use agreement that by their nature should survive termination shall survive termination, including, without limitation, ownership provisions, warranty disclaimers, indemnity, licensing in perpetuity and limitations of liability.