Chemotherapy “Tumor Response” can simply be the shedding of live cancer cells from the tumor into your blood circulation!

27th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, Vol. 88, Supplement 1, 2004.
Influence of primary tumor chemotherapy in breast cancer on circulating tumor cells. Indications for massive cell release into circulation concurrent with tumor size reduction.
By: Pachmann et al. Investigators from Friedrich-Schiller University in Jena reported how the use of Taxol, also known as the “gold standard of chemo” spread cancer cells from the tumor throughout the body.

American Association for Cancer Research 95th Annual Convention March 27-31 2004. LB-161 Influence of Neodajuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer on Circulating Tumor Cells. By: Katharina Pachmann & Oumar Camara University of Jena, Jena, Germany
“the number of circulating tumor cells reincreased accompanying the regression of the tumor. Therefore this increase was interpreted as dissemination of tumor cells from disintegrating tumor tissue into circulation.”

Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 2004 Dec;23(4):633-9.
Detection of disseminated tumour cells as a potential surrogate-marker for monitoring palliative chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. By: P. Staritz et al.
“Chemotherapy does not result in a decrease of disseminated tumour cells in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, but on the contrary may result in a recruitment of disseminated tumour cells.”

Oncology News International, 2005, 03:29 covered the story with the headline,
“Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Can Cause Release of Tumor Cells.”

2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting June 1, 2005
Quantitative monitoring of circulating epithelial cells for individual therapy control in lung and breast cancer during neoadjuvant treatment, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
By: Pachmann et al
They researchers reported how treatment led to a “massive release of tumor cells from disintegrating tissue occured into circulation…possibly a mixture of normal and live and dying tumor cells.”

Breast Cancer Research (2006-11-01 12:13)
Release of tumor cells during neoadjuvant therapy By: Dr. Professor Katharina Pachmann M.D. “The present report by Dr. Fehm confirms our previous results about dissemination of tumor cells…Indications for massive cell release into circulations concurrent with tumor size reduction…chemotherapy may cause the release of cancer cells into the blood…ironically, paclitaxel produces the greatest degree of tumor shrinkage but also the greatest release of circulating tumor cells.”

Annals of Oncology, 2007 Sep;18(9):1484-92.
The relevance of circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETC) for therapy monitoring during neoadjuvant (primary systemic) chemotherapy in breast cancer
By: Camara et al.
“CETC (Circulating Epithelial Tumor Cell) numbers in some cases re-increased 10,000-fold. A reduction in tumor size was recorded during this increase in cell number suggesting that the increase in CETC numbers in peripheral blood was mainly due to release of cells during the decay of the tumor.”

ScienceDaily, 15 March 2010
“Dr. Martin says his team found that a popular chemotherapy drug, taxol, actually causes cancer cell microtentacles to grow longer and allows tumor cells to reattach faster…If you treat people with taxol before surgery to shrink the primary tumor, levels of circulating tumor cells go up 1,000 to 10,000 fold, potentially increasing metastasis…”

Oncogene, 2010, 29, 3217–3227
Metastatic breast tumors express increased tau, which promotes microtentacle formation and the reattachment of detached breast tumor cells
By: MA Matrone et al.
“…taxanes have been determined to increase CTCs (Circulating Tumor Cells) by 10,000-fold among breast cancer patients.”

The tumor cells released into your circulation can also metastasize spreading your cancer!

Breast Cancer Research 2005, 7 :R975-R979
Quantification of the response of circulating epithelial cells to neodadjuvant treatment for breast cancer: a new tool for therapy monitoring
By: Pachmann et al
“It has been shown that cells can be shed from the tumour at all stages of disease and that these cells may remain in the patient’s circulation for lengthy periods after initial treatment of the primary tumour… in a proportion of patients these can eventually develop into metastases.”

Breast Cancer Research 2006, 8:R60
Presence of apoptotic and nonapoptotic disseminated tumor cells reflects the response to neoadjuvant systemic therapy in breast cancer
By: Fehm et al. “The presence of apoptotic tumor cells in bone marrow is reflected by therapy response of the primary tumor to systemic therapy.”

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2014; 52, Special Suppl, pp S1 – S1760
A subpopulation among circulating epithelial tumor cells in patients with solid cancer is capable of sphere formation and carries cancer stem cell properties.
CONCLUSIONS: “This study demonstrates that tumor stem cells are present in peripheral blood from metastatic and non-metastatic tumor patients. They represent a small subpopulation of circulating epithelial tumor cells with the ability to growth as tumor spheres and might be the progenitors of metastasis.”

Breast Cancer Research 2013, 15:R94
The presence and prognostic impact of apoptotic and nonapoptotic disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow of primary breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. By: Hartkopf et al.
“Conclusion: The presence of DTC [disseminated tumor cells] is independent of therapy response of the primary tumor. As patients that are DTC [disseminated tumor cells] positive after NACT [neoadjuvant chemotherapy] have an unfavorable outcome…”

Transplantation Proceedings, 1973 March; 5(1): 943–947.
Immunosuppression and Cancer. By: Israel Penn and Thomas E. Starzl
“The finding that cancer patients treated with chemotherapy may develop new tumors…represents the price the patient has to pay for the hope of relief from the original cancer…when a cancer arises in an immunosuppressed patient it may be useful to withdraw or reduce the immunosuppressive therapy in the hope that the host defenses may recover and resist the neoplasm.”

Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2014 Nov 1;32(31):3483-9
Circulating tumor cells and response to chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: SWOG S0500.
By: Smerage et al
“For patients with persistently increased CTCs after 21 days of first-line chemotherapy, early switching to an alternate cytotoxic therapy was not effective in prolonging OS. For this population, there is a need for more effective treatment than standard chemotherapy.”

In a 2012 published study, scientists found that healthy cells damaged by chemotherapy pump out a protein called WNT16B which boosts cancer cell survival, cancer spread, chemotherapy resistance AND triggers tumor growth!

Nature Medicine, 2012 Sep; 18(9): pages 1359–1368.
Treatment-induced damage to the tumor microenvironment promotes prostate cancer therapy resistance through WNT16B By: Sun et al.
“Acquired resistance to anticancer treatments is a substantial barrier to reducing the morbidity and mortality that is attributable to malignant tumors.”
Components of tissue microenvironments are recognized to profoundly influence cellular phenotypes, including susceptibilities to toxic insults…Using a genome-wide analysis of transcriptional responses to genotoxic stress induced by cancer therapeutics, we identified a spectrum of secreted proteins derived from the tumour microenvironment that includes the Wnt family member wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 16B (WNT16B)…The expression of WNT16B in the prostate tumour microenvironment attenuated the effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy in vivo, promoting tumour cell survival and disease progression. These results delineate a mechanism by which genotoxic therapies given in a cyclical manner can enhance subsequent treatment resistance through cell non-autonomous effects that are contributed by the tumour microenvironment.”

CTV News“Studies back idea of hidden tumour ‘seeds’ “

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